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86. Involvement in contraventions

(1) If a person is knowingly concerned in a contravention of the Law or Rules or other legislation administered by the DFSA committed by another person, the aforementioned person as well as the other person commits a contravention and is liable to be proceeded against and dealt with accordingly.
(2) If an officer of a body corporate is knowingly concerned in a contravention of the Law or Rules or other legislation administered by the DFSA committed by a body corporate, the officer as well as the body corporate commits a contravention and is liable to be proceeded against and dealt with accordingly.
(3) If the affairs of a body corporate are managed by its members, Article 86(2) applies in relation to the acts and defaults of a member in connection with his functions of management as if he were a director of the body corporate.
(4) If a partner (or a person purporting to act as a partner) is knowingly concerned in a contravention of the Law or Rules or other legislation administered by the DFSA committed by a partnership or by all or some of its constituent partners, he as well as the partnership or its constituent partners as the case may be commits a contravention and is liable to be proceeded against and dealt with accordingly.
(5) If an officer of an unincorporated association (other than a partnership) or a member of its governing body is knowingly concerned in a contravention of the Law or Rules or other legislation administered by the DFSA committed by the association, that officer or member as well as the association commits a contravention and is liable to be proceeded against and dealt with accordingly.
(6) For the purposes of Article 86, "officer" means a director, member of a committee of management, chief executive, manager, secretary or other similar officer of the body corporate or association, or a person purporting to act in such capacity, and an individual who is a controller of the body.
(7) For the purposes of Article 86, a person is 'knowingly concerned' in a contravention if, and only if, the person
(a) has aided, abetted, counselled or procured the contravention;
(b) has induced, whether by threats or promises or otherwise, the contravention;
(c) has in any way, by act or omission, directly or indirectly, been knowingly involved in or been party to, the contravention; or
(d) has conspired with another or others to effect the contravention.
(8) In Article 86, 'person' does not include the DFSA or President.