Entire Section

  • Part 2: Part 2: The DFSA

    • Chapter 1 — Chapter 1 — The Structure of the DFSA

      • 7. The DFSA

        (1) The DFSA is a body established under Dubai Law.
        (2) The DFSA shall have its own constitutional provisions, which shall incorporate the provisions of Schedule 2, and which shall not be inconsistent with those provisions.
        (3) In exercising its powers and performing its functions the DFSA shall act in an independent manner, notwithstanding that it is an agency of the government of the Emirate of Dubai.

      • 8. The Powers, Functions and Objectives of the DFSA

        (1) The DFSA has such functions and powers as are conferred, or expressed to be conferred, on it:
        (a) by or under the Law; and
        (b) by or under any other law made by the Ruler.
        (2) The DFSA has power to do whatever it deems necessary for or in connection with, or reasonably incidental to, performing its functions and exercising its powers conferred in accordance with (1).
        (3) In performing its functions and exercising its powers, the DFSA shall pursue the following objectives:
        (a) to foster and maintain fairness, transparency and efficiency in the financial services industry (namely, the financial services and related activities carried on) in the DIFC;
        (b) to foster and maintain confidence in the financial services industry in the DIFC;
        (c) to foster and maintain the financial stability of the financial services industry in the DIFC, including the reduction of systemic risk;
        (d) to prevent, detect and restrain conduct that causes or may cause damage to the reputation of the DIFC or the financial services industry in the DIFC, through appropriate means including the imposition of sanctions;
        (e) to protect direct and indirect users and prospective users of the financial services industry in the DIFC;
        (f) to promote public understanding of the regulation of the financial services industry in the DIFC;
        (g) to foster and maintain the objectives of the DIFC under Dubai Law in relation to the exercise or performance of any powers or functions conferred upon the DFSA by Dubai Law or DIFC Law; and
        (h) to pursue any other objectives as the Ruler may from time to time set under DIFC Law.
        (3A) In pursuing the objective referred to in (3)(d) in the context of money laundering, the DFSA shall:
        (a) monitor and enforce, or assist other appropriate authorities to monitor and enforce, compliance with Federal Anti-Money Laundering Legislation, as well as legislation administered by the DFSA;
        (b) prevent, detect and restrain conduct in so far as it relates to Relevant Persons; and
        (c) comply with the provisions of Chapter 2 of Part 4.
        (3B) In pursuing the objective referred to in (3)(c):
        (a) in the context of Recovery, the DFSA shall:
        (i) aim to ensure the continuity of systemically important financial services; and
        (ii) aim to avoid unnecessary destruction of value and losses to creditors;
        (b) in the context of Resolution, the DFSA shall:
        (i) aim to ensure the continuity of systemically important financial services;
        (ii) aim to avoid unnecessary destruction of value and losses to creditors;
        (iii) aim to minimise the overall costs of Resolution, in home and host jurisdictions; and
        (iv) consider the potential impact of its resolution actions on financial stability in other jurisdictions.
        (3C) In pursuing the objective referred to in (3)(e) in the context of Resolution, the DFSA shall aim to:
        (a) protect depositors; and
        (b) protect client assets by providing prompt access to assets through either:
        (i) the continued functioning of the Authorised Firm following Resolution;
        (ii) the rapid return to the clients of identifiable and segregated client assets; or
        (iii) the transfer of the client assets to a performing third party.
        (4) In exercising its powers and performing its functions, the DFSA shall take into consideration the following guiding principles, being the desirability of:
        (a) pursuing the objectives of the DIFC as set out under Dubai Law in so far as it is appropriate and proper for the DFSA to do so;
        (b) fostering the development of the DIFC as an internationally respected financial centre;
        (c) co-operating with and providing assistance to regulatory authorities in the State and other jurisdictions;
        (d) minimising the adverse effects of the activities of the DFSA on competition in the financial services industry;
        (e) using its resources in the most efficient way;
        (f) ensuring the cost of regulation is proportionate to its benefit;
        (g) exercising its powers and performing its functions in a transparent manner; and
        (h) complying with relevant generally accepted principles of good governance.

      • 9. Structure of the DFSA

        The DFSA shall be made up of:

        (a) the Chairman of the DFSA;
        (b) the DFSA Board of Directors;
        (c) the Financial Markets Tribunal appointed by the DFSA Board of Directors;
        (d) the Chief Executive and members of his staff; and
        (e) any DFSA committees as may be duly appointed from time to time.

      • 10. Independent Review of the DFSA

        (1) The President may appoint an independent person to review and report to the President on any aspect of the efficiency and effectiveness of the DFSA in the use of its resources.
        (2) The President shall meet the reasonable expenses incurred by such person in preparing the report.
        (3) A person appointed under Article 10(1) has a right of access at all reasonable times to all information which is reasonably required by him for the purposes of preparing the report and which is held or controlled by any officer, employee or agent of the DFSA.
        (4) Such person shall be entitled reasonably to require from the officers, employees and agents of the DFSA such information and explanations as he considers necessary for the purpose of preparing the report.
        (5) A person shall not, without reasonable excuse, intentionally engage in conduct that results in the obstruction of a person appointed under Article 10(1) in the exercise of his powers under Article 10.

      • 11. Reporting by the DFSA to the President

        (1) The DFSA shall provide the President with a written report on the exercise of its powers, performance of its functions and financial activities.
        (2) Such report shall be prepared and provided as soon as reasonably practicable in each financial year of the DFSA and shall relate to its previous financial year.
        (3) Such report shall be published by the DFSA without undue delay, or within such time period as the President otherwise directs.

      • 12. Liability

        (1) Subject to Article 12(2), the DFSA may be sued in its own name.
        (2) Neither the DFSA nor any officer, director, DFSA tribunal or committee member, employee, delegate or agent of the DFSA can be held liable for anything done or omitted to be done in the performance or purported performance of the functions or in the exercise or purported exercise of any power of the DFSA or any power or function delegated to the DFSA.
        (3) Article 12(2) does not apply if the act or omission is shown to have been in bad faith.

      • 13. Financial Year

        (1) The financial year of the DFSA commences on 1 January in each calendar year or such other date as the President may specify.
        (2) The first financial year of the DFSA commences on commencement of this Article and ends at the date arrived at under Article 13(1) for the next financial year.

      • 14. Taxation

        The income of the DFSA shall not be subject to taxation.

      • 15. Record Keeping

        The DFSA shall make suitable arrangements for keeping appropriate records in relation to the exercise of its powers and the performance of its functions.

      • 16. Funding and Fees

        (1) The DFSA may make Rules prescribing the fees payable to the DFSA, including those for applications for licensing, recognition, registration and authorisation, in connection with the performance of its functions and exercise of its powers.
        (2) In respect of each financial year of the DFSA, the President shall provide financial resources to the DFSA to the extent necessary to ensure that it is able adequately to perform its functions and exercise its powers.
        (3) The DFSA may invest its financial resources which are not immediately required in accordance with an investment policy approved in advance by the President.

      • 17. The Annual Budget of the DFSA

        (1) The DFSA shall submit to the President for his approval estimates of the annual income and expenditure of the DFSA for the next financial year.
        (2) Such estimates shall include figures relating to levels of remuneration and entitlement to expenses of the officers, employees and agents of the DFSA.
        (3) The DFSA shall submit such estimates to the President for his approval not later than the end of the financial year.
        (4) The President may on reasonable grounds reject such estimates within 30 days of receiving them, such rejection to be addressed in writing with reasons to the DFSA.
        (5) Unless the estimates have been approved by the President under Article 17(3) or rejected under Article 17(4), they shall be deemed to have been approved on expiry of the 30 days.

      • 17A. General Reserve

        (1) The DFSA shall maintain a general cash reserve equal to two times its annual expenditure, as specified in the latest estimate submitted under Article 17.
        (2) The DFSA may apply any income, penalty or surplus towards meeting the general cash reserve required under (1).

      • 18. Accounts

        (1) The DFSA shall keep proper accounts of its financial activities.
        (2) The DFSA shall, before the end of the first quarter of the financial year, prepare financial statements for the preceding financial year in accordance with the accounting standards specified by the DFSA in its Rules.
        (3) Such financial statements shall in any event give a true and fair view of the financial activities of the DFSA as at the end of the previous financial year and of the results of its operations and cash flows in the financial year.
        (4) Such statements shall be submitted to the DFSA Board of Directors and, where appropriate to do so, approved by the DFSA Board of Directors.
        (5) In this Article 'preceding year' does not include any financial year ending before the end of 2003.

      • 19. Audit

        (1) The DFSA Board of Directors shall appoint auditors to conduct an audit in relation to each financial year of the DFSA.
        (2) The DFSA shall, as soon as reasonably practicable after the preparation of its financial statements, provide such statements to the relevant auditors for audit.
        (3) The auditors shall prepare a report on the financial statements and send the report to the DFSA Board of Directors.
        (4) Such report shall, where appropriate, include a statement by the auditors as to whether or not, in their opinion, the financial statements to which the report relates give a true and fair view of the state of the financial activities of the DFSA as at the end of the financial year to which the financial statements relate and of the results of its operations and cash flows in the financial year.
        (5) The auditors shall have a right of access at all reasonable times to all information which is reasonably required by them for the purposes of preparing the report and which is held or controlled by any officer, employee or agent of the DFSA.
        (6) The auditors shall be entitled reasonably to require from the officers, employees and agents of the DFSA such information and explanations they consider necessary for the performance of their duties as auditors.
        (7) A person shall not without reasonable excuse intentionally engage in conduct that results in the obstruction of a person appointed under Article 19(1) in the exercise of his powers under Article 19.

    • Chapter 2 — Chapter 2 — The DFSA Board of Directors

      • 20. The Powers and Functions of the DFSA Board of Directors

        (1) The general powers and functions of the DFSA Board of Directors are to:
        (a) ensure that the DFSA exercises its statutory powers and performs its statutory functions in accordance with its objectives;
        (b) make policies relating to the regulation of financial services and related activities and any other matters over which the DFSA has exclusive jurisdiction;
        (c) review the performance of the Chief Executive;
        (d) give the Chief Executive written directions as to the furtherance of any of the DFSA's objectives or the performance of any of the Chief Executive's statutory functions. Such written directions shall not constitute Rules;
        (e) arrange for the DFSA to enter into binding and non-binding arrangements, including memoranda of understanding and co-operation with similar bodies, provided they do not conflict with the treaties to which the State is a party; and
        (f) accept a delegation of powers or functions from another person pursuant to Dubai Law or a Federal Law.
        (2) The legislative powers and functions of the DFSA Board of Directors are, so far as is reasonably practicable, to:
        (a) review and, where appropriate, submit draft laws to the President with a recommendation that they be approved and enacted;
        (b) review and, where appropriate, approve and make Rules;
        (c) review and, where appropriate, approve and issue standards and codes of practice of the DFSA; and
        (d) make written submissions to the President in relation to legislative matters outside the scope of its own legislative powers.
        (3) Except in respect of the powers and functions set out in Article 20(1)(c) and (d) and Article 20(2), the DFSA Board of Directors may delegate to a committee of the DFSA Board of Directors or to the Chief Executive such of its powers or functions as may appropriately and more efficiently and effectively be exercised or performed by such committee or the Chief Executive.
        (4) The DFSA Board of Directors may act through the Chairman of the DFSA.

      • 21. Chairman of the DFSA and Membership of the DFSA Board of Directors

        (1) The President shall appoint a person to be the Chairman of the DFSA for a fixed term.
        (2) The President may reappoint the Chairman for a further fixed term.
        (3) The Chairman may be dismissed only by the President for just cause in accordance with DIFC Law.
        (4) The President shall appoint persons to be members of the DFSA Board of Directors for fixed terms.
        (5) The President may reappoint a Board Member for a further fixed term.
        (6) A Board Member may be dismissed only by the President for just cause in accordance with DIFC Law and only after consulting the Chairman.
        (7) The Chairman of the DFSA shall be a Board Member and Chairman of the Board.
        (8) The Chief Executive shall be a Board Member but shall not be appointed as Chairman of the DFSA.
        (9) No member of the staff of the Chief Executive shall be appointed as a Board Member.
        (10) For the purposes of determining whether a person may be dismissed for just cause under this Article and Article 22, just cause means inability, incapacity or misbehaviour.

      • 22. The Chief Executive

        (1) The DFSA Board of Directors, by a majority resolution of two thirds of all members of the DFSA Board of Directors, shall appoint a person to be the Chief Executive of the DFSA for a fixed term and may reappoint the Chief Executive of the DFSA for a further fixed term.
        (2) The DFSA Board of Directors, by a majority resolution of two thirds of all members of the DFSA Board of Directors may dismiss the Chief Executive for just cause in accordance with DIFC Law.
        (3) The DFSA Board of Directors shall consult the President prior to appointing, renewing the appointment of or dismissing the Chief Executive.

    • Chapter 3 — Chapter 3 — Rules

      • 23. Power to Make Rules

        (1) The DFSA Board of Directors may make Rules in respect of any matters related to the objectives, powers or functions of the DFSA or which facilitate the administration of, or further the purpose of, any law administered by the DFSA. This power shall be exercised by the DFSA Board of Directors.
        (2) In particular, the DFSA Board of Directors when exercising the power in Article 23(1) may make Rules in respect of:
        (a) procedures and requirements in relation to licensing, authorisation and registration;
        (b) levels and types of financial resources to be maintained by particular persons in the DIFC;
        (c) standards of practice and business conduct of persons in dealing with their customers and clients and prospective customers and clients;
        (d) the resolution of disputes;
        (e) the conduct of particular persons in the DIFC;
        (f) the operation of an Authorised Market Institution in the DIFC, including but not limited to:
        (i) notification to and approval by the DFSA of any rules or guidance issued by an Authorised Market Institution;
        (ii) the prescribing of regulatory functions of an Authorised Market Institution; and
        (iii) the conduct of and supervision of any such regulatory function; and
        (g) the conduct of the DFSA and its officers, employees and agents in relation to the exercise of powers and performance of functions, including the exercise of discretionary powers and powers to conduct investigations and hearings.
        (3) Where the DFSA Board of Directors issues a standard or code of practice, the DFSA Board of Directors may incorporate such a standard or code into the Rules by reference and in such circumstances, except to the extent that the Rules otherwise provide, a person who is subject to the provisions of any such standard or code must comply with such provisions as if they were provisions of the Rules.
        (4) Where any legislation made under this Law purports to be made in exercise of a particular power or powers, it shall be taken also to be made in the exercise of all powers under which it may be made.

      • 24. Publication of Draft Rules

        (1) The DFSA shall publish draft Rules by means of a notice under Article 24(2).
        (2) The notice of draft Rules must include the following:
        (a) the draft text of the Rules;
        (b) a statement of the substance and purpose of the material provisions of the draft Rules; and
        (c) a summary of the draft Rules.
        (3) Upon publication of a notice under Article 24(2), the DFSA shall invite interested persons to make representations with respect to the draft Rules within a period of at least 30 days after the publication, or within such period as the DFSA Board of Directors may otherwise determine.
        (4) Articles 24(1), (2) and (3) shall not apply if the DFSA Board of Directors concludes that:
        (a) any delay likely to arise under such Articles is prejudicial to the interests of the DIFC; or
        (b) the draft Rules are amendments to correct anomalies or typographical errors in the legislation or are merely consequential in nature and in all cases do not alter the policy set forth in the relevant legislation.
        (5) Any period of time during which the DFSA invites interested persons to make representations with respect to draft Rules prior to Article 24 coming into effect shall be deemed to count as part or all of the period referred to in Article 24(3).

      • 25. Waivers and Modification of Rules

        (1) The DFSA may:
        (a) on the application of a person; or
        (b) with the consent of a person;
        by means of a written notice provide that one or more provisions of the Rules either:
        (c) shall not apply in relation to such person; or
        (d) shall apply to such person with such modifications as are set out in the written notice.
        (2) A written notice may be given subject to conditions.
        (3) A person to whom a condition specified in a written notice applies must comply with the condition. In the event of failure to comply with a condition, the DFSA may, without limiting any other powers that the DFSA may have, apply to the Court for an order, including an order that the person must comply with the condition in a specified way.
        (4) Unless the DFSA is satisfied that it is inappropriate or unnecessary to do so, it must publish a written notice in such a way as it considers appropriate for bringing the notice to the attention of:
        (a) those likely to be affected by it; and
        (b) others who may be likely to become subject to a similar notice.
        (5) The DFSA may:
        (a) on its own initiative or on the application of the person to whom it applies, withdraw a written notice; or
        (b) on the application of, or with the consent of, the person to whom it applies, vary a written notice.
        (6) The DFSA may make Rules in connection with the provision of a written notice under this Article, including Rules prescribing procedures for the making of applications and providing of consents.

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    • Chapter 4 — Chapter 4 — The Financial Markets Tribunal

      • 26. Constitution of the Financial Markets Tribunal

        (1) The DFSA shall maintain a tribunal of the DFSA called the Financial Markets Tribunal (referred to as the “FMT”).
        (2) The DFSA Board of Directors:
        (a) shall appoint persons for fixed terms to serve as the president and other members of the FMT; and
        (b) may reappoint the president or any of the members for further fixed terms.
        (3) None of the following persons shall be the president or a member of the FMT:
        (a) the Chairman of the DFSA;
        (b) the Chief Executive of the DFSA; or
        (c) any other Board Member, director, officer, employee or agent of the DFSA or of any other agency or body of the DIFC established under Dubai Law.
        (4) The president and members of the FMT shall have relevant qualifications, expertise and experience in the regulatory aspects of financial services and related activities.
        (5) The DFSA Board of Directors may dismiss the president or any of the members of the FMT for just cause. For the purpose of this Article, just cause means inability, incapacity or misbehaviour.

      • 27. Powers and Functions of the FMT

        (1) The powers and functions of the FMT are to hear and determine references and other proceedings as specified in Chapter 5 of Part 2.
        (2) The FMT may do whatever it deems necessary for or in connection with, or reasonably incidental to, performing its functions and exercising its powers conferred for the purposes of Article 27(1), including the giving of directions as to practice and procedure to be followed in the FMT in the hearing and determination of references or other proceedings.
        (3) The president of the FMT may establish one or more panels of the FMT to exercise the powers and perform the functions of the FMT.
        (4) The president of the FMT or the chairman of a panel appointed to hear and determine a reference or other proceeding may make any procedural order or order granting interim relief that the FMT has the power to make.
        (5) For the purpose of a reference or other proceeding, the president of the FMT or the chairman of a panel appointed to hear and determine the proceeding:
        (a) may appoint one or more persons, who shall be independent and an expert in their field, to assist the FMT in deciding any of the issues arising in the proceeding, including assistance in the examination of the parties' witnesses; and
        (b) shall provide the parties with an opportunity to make submissions on the expert's assistance and shall record in its decision the issues on which, and the extent to which, such assistance was relied upon by the FMT.
        (6) Subject to the Law and Rules, the FMT may make rules of procedure governing the commencement, hearing and determination of references and other proceedings, including as to:
        (a) rules of evidence;
        (b) the manner in which powers may be exercised;
        (c) the manner in which conflicts of interest of members of the FMT may be prevented;
        (d) the manner in which an FMT appointed expert may provide assistance to the FMT;
        (e) notification to the Chief Executive of the commencement of a reference or other proceeding; and
        (f) the manner in which the Chief Executive may appear and be heard in the reference or other proceeding.

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    • Chapter 5 — Chapter 5 — Proceedings in the Financial Markets Tribunal

      • 28. Definitions

        In this Chapter, unless the context provides otherwise:

        (a) an "officer, employee or agent" of a person includes a person who proposes to become an officer, employee or agent of a person; and
        (b) a "proceeding" is:
        (i) a reference;
        (ii) a regulatory proceeding; or
        (iii) an application by the DFSA to the FMT for the payment or reimbursement of costs and expenses of an investigation under Article 79;
        (c) a "reference" is a proceeding before the FMT to review a decision of the DFSA under this Article;
        (d) a "regulatory proceeding" is a proceeding before the FMT to hear and determine an issue of a regulatory nature as prescribed under the Law or the Rules or any other legislation administered by the DFSA.

      • 29. References

        (1) The FMT has jurisdiction to hear and determine any reference where a provision of legislation administered by the DFSA or a provision in or made under a DIFC Law provides that a matter may be referred to the FMT for review.
        (2) A person may commence a reference to the FMT only in circumstances where the FMT has jurisdiction to hear and determine the reference under this Article.
        (3) A reference must be commenced:
        (a) within 30 days of the relevant decision of the DFSA; or
        (b) within such further period not exceeding 30 days as may be approved by the FMT where it is satisfied that such approval is appropriate in the circumstances.
        (4) At the conclusion of a reference, the FMT may do one or more of the following:
        (a) affirm the original decision of the DFSA which is the subject of the reference;
        (b) vary that original decision;
        (c) set aside all or part of that original decision and make a decision in substitution;
        (d) decide what, if any, is the appropriate action for the DFSA to take and remit the matter to the Chief Executive;
        (e) make such order in respect of any matter or any of the parties which it considers appropriate or necessary in the interests of the DFSA's regulatory objectives or otherwise in the interests of the DIFC; or
        (f) issue directions for giving effect to its decision, save that such directions may not require the DFSA to take any step which it would not otherwise have the power to take.
        (5) If a person refers a decision to the FMT, the DFSA must publish such information about the decision as it considers appropriate unless:
        (a) in the DFSA’s opinion, publication of such information would be prejudicial to the interests of the DIFC; or
        (b) the FMT has made an order under Article 31(5) preventing such publication.
        (6) Information about a decision referred to in paragraph (5):
        (a) must be published as soon as practicable after the referral of the decision to the FMT;
        (b) may be published in such manner as the DFSA considers appropriate; and
        (c) must include a statement that the person has exercised his right to refer the matter to the FMT and the decision is subject to review.
        (7) Nothing in paragraph (5) limits the DFSA’s power under Article 116 to publish information or statements about a decision or matter in other circumstances.
        (8) The FMT may make an order referred to in paragraph (5)(b) prohibiting publication of information only if it is satisfied that:
        (a) such publication would be likely to cause serious harm to the person to whom the decision relates or to some other person; and
        (b) it is proportionate to make such an order, having regard to the principle that the DFSA should exercise its powers as transparently as possible and that proceedings of the FMT should generally be in public.

      • 30. Regulatory proceedings

        (1) The FMT has jurisdiction to hear and determine any regulatory proceeding where a provision of the Law, the Rules, or any other legislation administered by the DFSA provides that the FMT may hear and determine a regulatory proceeding relating to a matter.
        (2) The DFSA or any other person may commence a regulatory proceeding in the FMT only in circumstances where the FMT has jurisdiction pursuant to this Article to hear and determine the matter.
        (3) A regulatory proceeding may be brought either:
        (a) by the DFSA; or
        (b) by another person with:
        (i) sufficient interest in the matter to which the regulatory proceeding relates; and
        (ii) the consent of the DFSA or, where such consent is denied, the consent of the FMT.
        (4) At the conclusion of a regulatory proceeding, the FMT may do one or more of the following:
        (a) declare that a person has committed a contravention of a specified provision;
        (b) impose a fine on a person in respect of a contravention, of such amount as it considers appropriate;
        (c) censure the person by any means, including by way of publishing a notice of censure;
        (d) make an order requiring the person to effect restitution or compensate any other person for such period and on such terms as the FMT may direct;
        (e) make an order requiring the person to account, in such form and on such terms as the FMT may direct, for such amounts as the FMT determines to be profits arising from wrongdoing or any other form of unjust enrichment as determined by the FMT;
        (f) make an order requiring the person to cease and desist from such activity as the FMT may stipulate;
        (g) make an order requiring the person to do an act or thing;
        (h) make an order prohibiting the person from holding office at any body corporate carrying on business in the DIFC; or
        (i) make a finding, declaration or order of a type prescribed under the Law, Rules or any other legislation administered by the DFSA.

      • 31. Conduct of proceedings

        (1) A person shall commence a proceeding by giving the FMT a written notice in the form provided for in the rules of procedure of the FMT.
        (2) Subject to Article 31(4), on the commencement of a proceeding, the president of the FMT shall, without undue delay:
        (a) select and appoint a panel of one or more members of the FMT to exercise the powers and perform the functions of the FMT to hear and determine the matter; and
        (b) appoint a panel member to be the panel chairman.
        (3) For the purpose of Article 31(2), the president of the FMT may appoint himself as the chairman or as a member of a panel in a proceeding.
        (4)
        (a) Where:
        (i) a proceeding is commenced before the FMT;
        (ii) there are common parties or there is a common question of law or fact in any other proceeding commenced before the FMT; and
        (iii) the president of the FMT is satisfied that it is in the interests of justice and efficiency and is in the interests of the DIFC to make a direction under this Article;
        the president of the FMT may direct that:
        (iv) the proceedings be consolidated, heard and determined by the FMT constituted as a single panel, on such terms as the president may direct;
        (v) the proceedings are to be heard at the same time, or one following another; or
        (vi) a proceeding is to be stayed until the determination of another proceeding.
        (b) Where two or more original proceedings are consolidated into a single proceeding under Article 31(4)(a), the FMT panel constituted for the consolidated proceeding shall, in hearing and determining issues relevant to each of the original proceedings, have the same powers in relation to those issues as the FMT panel would have had in the original proceedings.
        (5) In hearing and determining a proceeding, the FMT may:
        (a) receive and consider any evidence by way of oral evidence, written statements or documents, even if such evidence may not be admissible in civil or criminal proceedings in a court of law;
        (b) determine the manner in which such evidence is received by the FMT;
        (c) where the proceeding is a reference, consider any evidence relating to the subject-matter of the reference, whether or not such evidence was available to the DFSA at the time of the decision to which the reference relates;
        (d) by notice in writing require a person to attend before it at any sitting and to give evidence and produce any item, record or document in his possession relating to the subject matter of the proceeding;
        (e) administer oaths;
        (f) examine or cause to be examined on oath or otherwise a person attending before it and require the person to answer truthfully any question which the FMT considers appropriate for the purpose of the proceeding;
        (g) order a witness to provide evidence by sworn statement for the purpose of the proceedings;
        (h) order a person not to publish or otherwise disclose any material disclosed by any person to the FMT;
        (i) where the proceeding is a reference, stay the decision of the DFSA to which the reference relates and any related steps proposed to be taken by the DFSA until the FMT has determined the reference; and
        (j) exercise such other powers or make such other orders as the FMT considers necessary for or ancillary to the conduct of the proceeding or the performance of its function.
        (6) Proceedings and decisions of the FMT shall be heard and given in public unless the FMT orders otherwise, or its rules of procedure provide otherwise.
        (7) Any finding of fact in a proceeding shall be determined on the balance of probabilities.
        (8) A decision of the FMT may be taken by a majority.
        (9) At the conclusion of a proceeding, the FMT may also make an order requiring a party to the proceedings to pay a specified amount, being all or part of the costs of the proceedings, including those of any party.
        (10) Where the FMT makes an order requiring a party to the proceedings to pay costs under Article 31(9), such costs may be recovered from the recipient of the order in a court of competent jurisdiction as a debt due to the party which incurred the relevant costs.
        (11) Upon making its decision, the FMT must without undue delay inform each party to the proceeding in writing of:
        (a) such decision and the reasons for such decision, including its findings on material questions of fact and identifying the evidence or other material on which those findings were based;
        (b) the date on which the decision is to take effect; and
        (c) where applicable, the date by which payment of any fine, restitution or compensation must be made.
        (12) A certificate that purports to be signed by the president or proper officer of the FMT and which states that the FMT on a specified day made a specified decision, including a finding that a specified person has committed a contravention of a specified provision of the Law or of the Rules or of any other legislation administered by the DFSA or made a specified finding of fact, is, in any other proceedings before FMT, or proceedings before the Court, where relevant:
        (a) conclusive evidence of the decision of the FMT made on that day;
        (b) prima facie evidence that the person contravened that provision; and
        (c) prima facie evidence of the relevant finding of fact.

      • 32. Enforcement

        (1) A person commits a contravention if that person, without reasonable excuse:
        (a) fails to comply with a lawful order, notice, prohibition or requirement of the FMT;
        (b) having been lawfully required by the FMT to attend before it, does not attend or leaves the place where his attendance is so required without the permission of the FMT;
        (c) hinders or deters any person from attending before the FMT, giving evidence or producing any item, record or document, for the purposes of any reference or other proceeding;
        (d) threatens or causes any loss to be suffered by any person who has attended before the FMT, on account of such attendance;
        (e) threatens or causes any loss to be suffered by any member of the FMT or any person assisting the FMT at any time; or
        (f) engages in conduct, including without limitation the:
        (i) destruction of documents; or
        (ii) giving of information that is false or misleading;
        that is intended to obstruct the FMT in the exercise of any of its powers.
        (2) Without limiting the application of Article 32(3), where a person commits a contravention under Article 32(1), the FMT may make one or more orders imposing a fine on the person of such amount as it considers appropriate, censuring the person, requiring the person to effect restitution or compensation, requiring the person to cease and desist from such activity as the FMT may stipulate, or requiring the person to do any other act or thing.
        (3) Where a person fails to comply with a decision, lawful order, notice, prohibition or requirement of the FMT, or fails to pay a fine lawfully imposed by the FMT, the Court may, on application of:
        (a) the FMT; or
        (b) any party to the reference or other proceeding, including the DFSA;
        make any order as it thinks fit to enforce such decision, order, notice, prohibition, requirement or fine.

      • 33. Appeal from a decision of the FMT

        (1) A party to a reference or other proceeding may, with the permission of the FMT or the Court, appeal a decision of the FMT to the Court only on a point of law.
        (2) In this Article:
        (a) "permission" means, in the first instance, permission of the FMT and where this is denied, permission of the Court; and
        (b) "a party" includes the DFSA.

      • 34. Savings and Transitional

        (1) For the purposes of this Article:
        (a) "previous Law" means the Regulatory Law 2004 as it was in force immediately prior to the commencement of the DIFC Laws Amendment Law No. 1 of 2014; and
        (b) "current Law" means the provisions of this Law that came into force under the DIFC Laws Amendment Law No. 1 of 2014, as amended from time to time.
        (2) The Financial Markets Tribunal that was established under the previous Law continues as if it had been established under the current Law including, without limitation, any appointment made under the previous Law which if subsisting at the date of commencement of the current Law shall continue as if made under the current Law.
        (3) The Regulatory Appeals Committee that was established under the previous Law continues only for the purposes of Article 34(5).
        (4) Except as provided in Article 34(5) and (6):
        (a) anything done or omitted to be done under or for the purposes of the previous Law, including a contravention, is deemed to be done or omitted to be done under or for the purposes of the current Law; and
        (b) nothing in the current Law affects:
        (i) any right, privilege, remedy, obligation or liability accrued to or incurred by a person under the previous Law; or
        (ii) any investigation or legal or administrative proceeding commenced or to be commenced in respect of such a right, privilege, remedy, obligation or liability.
        (5) Any proceeding instituted in the Financial Markets Tribunal or the Regulatory Appeals Committee under the previous Law shall continue under the previous Law, and for that purpose, the provisions in Chapters 4 and 5 of Part 2 of the previous Law shall continue in force and effect until such time as the proceedings, and any related appeals and proceedings, are complete.
        (6) Where there is a contravention under Article 30(1) or 35(1) of the previous Law, proceedings may be instituted in the Financial Markets Tribunal pursuant to Article 30(2) or 35(2) of the previous Law, and, for that purpose, the provisions in Chapters 4 and 5 of Part 2 of the previous Law shall continue in force and effect until such time as those proceedings, and any related appeals and proceedings, are complete.

      • 35. not in use

    • Chapter 6 — Chapter 6 — The Chief Executive of the DFSA

      • 36. The Powers and Functions of the Chief Executive

        The powers and functions of the Chief Executive are, so far as is reasonably practicable, to:

        (a) exercise the executive power of the DFSA by taking such steps as are reasonable and which he considers appropriate to meet the objectives of the DFSA;
        (b) license, authorise, register, recognise, regulate and supervise the conduct of activities and persons required to be regulated by the DFSA by or under Dubai Law or DIFC Law;
        (c) prepare or cause to be prepared in a timely and efficient manner:
        (i) draft Rules; and
        (ii) draft standards or codes of practice;
        reasonably required to enable the DFSA to perform its statutory functions, and submit such drafts to the DFSA Board of Directors;
        (d) make and issue Guidance which does not constitute a standard or code of practice, and which is reasonably required to enable the DFSA to perform its statutory functions, and advise the DFSA Board of Directors of such Guidance;
        (e) grant waivers and modifications to the application of Rules;
        (f) exercise any power to grant waivers or modifications to the application of other legislation applying in the DIFC where such a power is conferred on the DFSA by that legislation, and advise the DFSA Board of Directors of any such exercise of power;
        (g) investigate matters capable of investigation under any legislation administered by the DFSA, undertake remedial or enforcement actions and, where appropriate, commence proceedings before the FMT and any other tribunals or courts of appropriate jurisdiction;
        (h) where appropriate to do so, delegate such of his functions and powers as may more efficiently and effectively be performed by officers or employees of the DFSA or committees of such persons, and, with the approval of the DFSA Board of Directors either generally or in relation to any particular matter, by any other person; and
        (i) exercise and perform such other powers and functions as may be delegated to the Chief Executive by the DFSA Board of Directors from time to time.

    • Chapter 7 — Chapter 7 — Conflicts of Interest and Use of Information

      • 37. Conflicts of Interest

        (1) Officers, employees and agents of the DFSA shall disclose material conflicts of interest to which they are subject in performing their functions. Such disclosure shall be made without undue delay to the person to whom such officer, employee or agent reports.
        (2) Officers, employees and agents of the DFSA shall not participate in the making of decisions on matters in relation to which they are subject to a material conflict of interest, save that breach of Article 37(2) shall not result in such decision being invalid.

      • 38. Confidential Information

        (1) Subject to Article 38(3) and (4), confidential information must not be disclosed by the DFSA or by any of its officers, employees or agents, or by any person coming into possession of the information, without the consent of the person to whom the duty of confidentiality is owed.
        (2) Information is confidential when:
        (a) it is received by the DFSA or any of its officers, employees or agents in the course of the performance by such person of a function under the Law or under any other legislation administered by the DFSA; and
        (b) it has not been made available to the public in circumstances in which disclosure is not prohibited under such Law or other legislation.
        (2A) Information is not confidential information if it is in the form of a summary or collection of information so framed that it is not possible to ascertain from it information relating to any particular person.
        (3) The DFSA may disclose confidential information where such disclosure:
        (a) is permitted or required under the Law or Rules or under other legislation administered by the DFSA;
        (b) is permitted or required by any other law;
        (c) is made to:
        (i) the Companies Registrar;
        (ii) a Financial Services Regulator;
        (iii) a governmental or regulatory authority exercising powers and performing functions relating to anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing or sanctions compliance;
        (iv) a self-regulatory body or organisation exercising and performing powers and functions in relation to financial services;
        (v) a civil or criminal law enforcement agency;
        (vi) a governmental or other regulatory authority including a self-regulatory body or organisation exercising powers and performing functions in relation to the regulation of auditors, accountants or lawyers; or
        (vii) a Resolution Authority in another jurisdiction,
        for the purpose of assisting the performance by any such person of its regulatory functions; or
        (d) is made in good faith for the purposes of performance and exercise of the functions and powers of the DFSA.
        (4) The DFSA may disclose confidential information to the DIFC Authority where the DFSA is satisfied that:
        (a) it is necessary and appropriate to disclose that information to the DIFC Authority to assist it to prepare policies or strategies for the development of the DIFC; and
        (b) the information is to be used by the DIFC Authority only for internal purposes and the DIFC Authority has in place proper controls to ensure that the information is not disclosed to any other person.
        (5) The DFSA may specify in writing conditions or restrictions relating to the use of confidential information when it discloses information to a person under Article 38(3) or (4).
        (6) A person must not, without reasonable excuse, fail to comply with a condition or restriction imposed under Article 38(5).

    • Chapter 8 — Chapter 8 — Other Regulators

      • 39. Exercise of Powers on Behalf of Other Regulators

        At the request of:

        (a) the Companies Registrar;
        (b) a Financial Services Regulator;
        (c) a governmental or regulatory authority exercising powers and performing functions relating to anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing or sanctions compliance;
        (d) a self-regulatory body or organisation exercising and performing powers and functions in relation to financial services;
        (e) a civil or criminal law enforcement agency;
        (f) a governmental or other regulatory authority including a self-regulatory body or organisation exercising powers and performing functions in relation to the regulation of auditors, accountants or lawyers; or
        (g) a Resolution Authority in another jurisdiction,

        the DFSA may, where it considers appropriate, exercise its powers under the Law or under any other legislation administered by the DFSA for the purpose of assisting the performance by such persons of their regulatory functions.

      • 39A. Performance of Functions Delegated by Other Regulators

        (1) This Article applies if:
        (a) a person referred to in Article 39 (a) to (g) (“the regulator”) delegates a regulatory function to the DFSA (“the delegated function”); and
        (b) the DFSA enters into a binding or non-binding written arrangement, including a memorandum of understanding, with the regulator under which the DFSA agrees to perform the delegated function.
        (2) The DFSA may perform the delegated function and, without prejudice to the DFSA’s ability to exercise any powers delegated by the regulator, the DFSA may exercise its powers under the Law or under any other legislation administered by the DFSA for the purposes of performing the delegated function.

      • 40. Delegation of Functions and Powers to Other Regulators

        (1) Without limiting in any way the generality of any other provisions of the Law, the DFSA may delegate functions and powers to a representative of:
        (a) a Financial Services Regulator;
        (b) a governmental or regulatory authority in the State or elsewhere exercising powers and performing functions relating to anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing or sanctions compliance; or
        (c) a civil or criminal law enforcement agency of the State;
        for the purpose of exercising the powers of the DFSA under Chapters 1 and 2 of Part 5.
        (2) The DFSA may delegate a function or power under this Article only if it considers that there are adequate arrangements in place to ensure that the delegated function or power will be exercised in a manner that is consistent with Chapters 1 and 2 of Part 5 and the objectives of the DFSA.