Anti-Money Laundering, Counter-Terrorist Financing and Sanctions Module (AML) [VER18/09-21]
AML 1 AML 1 Introduction
AML 1.1 AML 1.1 Application
This module (AML) applies to:(a) every
Relevant Personin respect of all its activities carried on in or from the DIFC;(b) the persons specified in Rule 1.2.1 as being responsible for a Relevant Person'scompliance with this module; and(c) a Relevant Person, which is a DIFCentity, to the extent required by Rule 14.1.
except to the extent that a provision of AML provides for a narrower application.
For the purposes of these Rules, a
Relevant Personmeans:(a) an Authorised Firmother than a Credit Rating Agency;(b) an Authorised Market Institution;(c) a DNFBP; or(d) a Registered Auditor.
AML 1.2 AML 1.2 Responsibility for compliance with this module
AML 1.2.1(1) Responsibility for a
Relevant Person'scompliance with this module lies with every member of its senior management.(2) In carrying out their responsibilities under this module every member of a Relevant Person'ssenior management must exercise due skill, care and diligence.(3) Nothing in this Rule precludes the DFSAfrom taking enforcement action against any person including any one or more of the following persons in respect of a breach of any Rule in this module:(a) a Relevant Person;(b) members of a Relevant Person'ssenior management; or(c) an Employeeof a Relevant Person.
AML 1.3 AML 1.3 Application table
AML 1.3 Guidance
Relevant Person Applicable Chapters Authorised Person 1–14 Representative Office 1–5* 10- 14 Registered Auditor 1 -8 10–14 DNFBP 1–8 10–15
* Chapters 6–9 are unlikely to apply to a
Representative Officeas such an office is only permitted to carry on limited activities in the DIFCand therefore must not have Customers.
AML 2 AML 2 Overview and Purpose of the Module
AML 2 Guidance1. In this module, for simplicity, a reference to "money laundering" also includes terrorist financing and the financing of illegal organisations (see AML Rule 3.1.1).
Overview of the DIFC's AML regime2. The
DIFCis governed by two separate and complementary regimes in relation to AML regulation, both administered by the DFSA:a. The Federal regime: Under Article 3 of Federal Law No. 8 of 2004, the provisions of Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism and Illegal Organisations and Federal Law No. 7 of 2014 on Combating Terrorism Offences and the implementing regulations under those laws apply in the DIFC. The DFSA, as the DIFC's supervisory authority for Relevant Persons for the purposes of those laws, is obliged to supervise and monitor Relevant Persons for compliance with provisions of the Federal laws and regulations. The DFSA may also impose administrative penalties for breaches of those laws and the implementing regulations. See Article 14 of Federal Law No. 20 of 2018, Article 44 of Cabinet Decision No. 10 of 2019, and Article 20 of Cabinet Decision No. 20 of 2019; andb. The DIFCregime: Under Article 70(3) of the DIFC Regulatory Law 2004 (the "Regulatory Law"), the DFSA has jurisdiction for the regulation of anti-money laundering in the DIFCrelating to Relevant Persons(see para 4 below) and their officers, employees and agents. The DIFCspecific regime is contained in Chapter 2 of Part 4 of the Regulatory Law and any DFSA Rules made in connection with anti-money laundering measures, policies and procedures.3. Note that under Article 71(1) of the Regulatory Law, the DIFCregime requires compliance with the Federal regime. It follows that a failure to comply with a provision of Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism and Illegal Organisations or Federal Law No. 7 of 2014 on Combating Terrorism Offences or the implementing regulations under those laws may also provide evidence of failure to comply with Article 71(1), which may then be addressed under the disciplinary and remedial provisions of the Regulatory Law and DFSA Rules.
Purpose of the AML module4. The AML module has been designed to provide a single reference point for all persons and entities (collectively called
Relevant Persons) referred to in AML Rule 1.1.2 who are supervised by the DFSAfor Anti-Money Laundering(AML), Counter-Terrorist Financing(CTF) and sanctions compliance. Accordingly it applies to Authorised Firms(other than Credit Rating Agencies), Authorised Market Institutions, Designated Non-Financial Businesses and Professions(DNFBPs), and Registered Auditors. The AML module takes into consideration the fact that Relevant Personshave differing AML risk profiles. A Relevant Personshould familiarise itself with this module, and assess the extent to which the chapters and sections apply to it.5. The AML module cannot be read in isolation from other relevant U.A.E. legislation or developments in international policy and best practice and, to the extent applicable, Relevant Personsneed to be aware of, and take into account, how these aforementioned matters may impact on the Relevant Person'sday to day operations. This is particularly relevant when considering the list of persons and terrorist organisations issued under Cabinet Decision No. 20 of 2019 and the United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs) which apply in the DIFC, and unilateral sanctions imposed by other jurisdictions which may apply to a Relevant Persondepending on the Relevant Person'sjurisdiction of origin, its business and/or customer base.
Structure of the AML module6. Chapter 1 of this module contains an application table which should assist a
Relevant Personto navigate through the module and to determine which chapters are applicable to it. Chapter 1 also specifies who is ultimately responsible for a Relevant Person'scompliance with the AML module. The DFSAexpects the senior management of a Relevant Personto establish a robust and effective AML/CTF and sanctions compliance culture for the business.7. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the AML module and chapter 3 sets out the key definitions in the module. Note that not all definitions used in this module are capitalised.8. Chapter 4 explains the meaning of the risk-based approach (RBA), which should be applied when complying with this module. The RBA requires a risk-based assessment of a Relevant Person'sbusiness (in chapter 5) and its customers (in chapter 6). A risk-based assessment should be a dynamic process involving regular review, and the use of these reviews to establish the appropriate processes to match the levels of risk. No two Relevant Personswill have the same approach, and implementation of the RBA and the AML module permits a Relevant Personto design and implement systems that should be appropriate to their business and customers, with the obvious caveat being that such systems should be reasonable and proportionate in light of the AML risks. The DFSAexpects the RBA to determine the breadth and depth of the Customer Due Diligence ( CDD) which is undertaken for a particular customer under chapter 7, though the DFSAunderstands that there is an inevitable overlap between the risk-based assessment of the customer in chapter 6 and CDDin chapter 7. This overlap may occur at the initial stages of customer on-boarding but may also occur when undertaking on-going CDD.9. Chapter 8 sets out when and how a Relevant Personmay rely on a third party to undertake all or some of its CDDobligations. Reliance on a third-party CDDreduces the need to duplicate CDDal performed for a customer. Alternatively, a Relevant Personmay outsource some or all of its CDDobligations to a service provider.10. Chapter 9 sets out certain obligations in relation to correspondent banking, wire transfers and other matters which apply to A uthorised Persons, and, in particular, to banks.11. Chapter 10 sets out a Relevant Person'sobligations in relation to United Nations Security Council resolutions and sanctions, and government, regulatory and international findings (in relation to AML, terrorist financing and the financing of weapons of mass destruction).12. Chapter 11 sets out the obligation for a Relevant Personto appoint a Money Laundering Reporting Officer ( MLRO) and the responsibilities of such a person.13. Chapter 12 sets out the requirements for AML training and awareness. A Relevant Personshould adopt the RBA when complying with chapter 12, so as to make its training and awareness proportionate to the AML risks of the business and the employee role.14. Chapter 13 contains the obligations applying to all Relevant Personsconcerning Suspicious Activity Reports, which are required to be made under Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism and Illegal Organisations.15. Chapter 14 contains the general obligations applying to all Relevant Persons, including Grouppolicies, notifications, record-keeping requirements and the annual AML Return.16. Chapter 15 sets out specific Rules applying to DNFBPs, including the requirement to register with the DFSA, and Chapter 16 contains certain transitional Rules.
The U.A.E. criminal law17. The
U.A.E.criminal law applies in the DIFCand, therefore, persons in the DIFCmust be aware of their obligations in respect of the criminal law as well as these Rules. Relevant U.A.E.criminal laws include Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism and Illegal Organisations, Federal Law No. 7 of 2014 on Combating Terrorism Offences and the Penal Code of the U.A.E.18. Under Federal AML legislation a Person may be criminally liable for certain conduct, such as:
a. money laundering;b. financing terrorism;c. financing illegal organisations;d. 'tipping off';e. violation of sanctions;f. failure to declare currency or precious metals brought into or taken out of the U.A.E.19. The U.A.E Central Bank has the power under Federal AML legislation to freeze funds or other assets suspected of relating to money laundering, terrorist financing or the financing of illegal organisations. Other Federal authorities also have powers to apply for the freezing or confiscation of funds or other assets that have been used for such purposes.20. In a number of places in this module, Guidance cross-refers to specific requirements in Federal AML legislation. Rules or Guidance in this module should not be relied upon to interpret or determine the application of the Federal AML legislation.
Relevant Personsshould refer to the guidelines issued under the Federal AML legislation to understand their obligations under that legislation..
Financial Action Task Force21. The
Financial Action Task Force( FATF) is an inter-governmental body whose purpose is the development and promotion of international standards to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.22. The DFSAhas had regard to the FATFRecommendations in making these Rules. A Relevant Personmay wish to refer to the FATFRecommendations and interpretive notes to assist it in complying with these Rules. However, in the event that a FATFRecommendation or interpretive note conflicts with a Rule in this module, the relevant Rule takes precedence.23. A Relevant Personmay also wish to refer to the FATFtypology reports which may assist in identifying new money laundering threats and which provide information on money laundering and terrorist financing methods. The FATFtypology reports cover many pertinent topics for Relevant Persons, including corruption, new payment methods, money laundering using trusts and company service providers, and vulnerabilities of free trade zones. These typology reports can be found on the FATFwebsite www.fatf-gafi.org.24. The U.A.E., as a member of the United Nations, is required to comply with sanctions issued and passed by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). These UNSC obligations apply in the DIFCand their importance is emphasised by specific obligations contained in this module requiring Relevant Personsto establish and maintain effective systems and controls to comply with UNSC sanctions and resolutions (See chapter 10).25. The FATFhas issued guidance on a number of specific UNSC sanctions and resolutions regarding the countering of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Such guidance has been issued to assist in implementing the targeted financial sanctions and activity based financial prohibitions. This guidance can be found on the FATFwebsite www.fatf-gafi.org.26. In relation to unilateral sanctions imposed in specific jurisdictions such as the European Union, the U.K. (HM Treasury) and the U.S. (Office of Foreign Assets Control), the DFSAexpects a Relevant Personto consider and take positive steps to ensure compliance where required or appropriate.
Tax Issues and Exchange of Information for Tax purposes27. The
DIFCbenefits from an international customer base with a growing number of customers who may be investing with financial institutions outside their country of residence. These factors create a risk of the services of Relevant Personsbeing used to hide assets which are subject to taxation, or to launder the unlawful proceeds of tax crimes.28. The DFSA is committed to protecting the DIFCfrom being used to facilitate tax crimes and believes that strong AML policies, procedures, systems and controls, including robust customer due diligence requirements, are needed to mitigate the risk of tax crimes.29. Such measures will also ensure that a Relevant Personis able to comply with other international obligations such as the OECD Automatic Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Programme and FATF Recommendations, which were updated in 2012 to expand the scope of money laundering predicate offences to include tax crimes (related to direct and indirect taxes).30. A Relevant Personshould therefore establish and maintain appropriate policies, procedures, systems and controls to enable it to detect and deter the laundering of proceeds of tax crimes. For example, as part of its risk-based approach under chapter 4, it should consider its tax risk exposure as a result of the nature of its business, customers, products, services and other relevant factors. It should also conduct appropriate customer due diligence to identify customers who may be subject to tax crime risk (see also the Guidance after AML Rule 6.1.4).
AML 3 AML 3 Interpretation and Terminology
AML 3.1 AML 3.1 Interpretation
AML 3.1.1 AML 3.1.1
A reference in this module to "money laundering" in lower case includes a reference to terrorist financing and the financing of illegal organisations unless the context provides or implies otherwise.
AML 3.1.1 Guidance
Chapter 6, section 6.2, of the General (GEN) module sets out how to interpret the Rulebook, including this module.
AML 3.2 AML 3.2 Glossary for AML
AML 3.2 Guidance1. In order to make this module easier to read, some of the defined terms in this module have not had the initial letter of each word capitalised in the same way as in other Rulebook modules.2. Some of the defined terms and abbreviations in this module may also be found in the
DFSA'sGlossary module (GLO). Where a defined term in this module does not appear in Rule 3.2.1, a Relevant Personshould look in GLO to find the meaning. In addition, AML Rule 9.3.2 of this module sets out definitions relevant to AML section 9.3 (Electronic fund transfers).3. In accordance with the interpretation provisions in the Regulatory Law, a reference to legislation includes a reference to the legislation as amended or re-enacted from time to time.
In this module, the terms and abbreviations listed in the table below have the following meanings:
AML Means either "anti-money laundering" or this Anti-Money Laundering, Counter-Terrorist Financing and Sanctions module, depending on the context. Authorised Person Means an Authorised Firmor an Authorised Market Institution. Beneficial Owner
(1) In relation to a customer, means a natural person who ultimately owns or controls the customer or a natural person on whose behalf a transaction is conducted or a business relationship is established, and includes:(a) in relation to a body corporate, a person referred to in AML Rule 7.3.3 (2) or (4);(b) in relation to a foundation, a person referred to in AML Rule 7.3.5 (2) or (3); and(c) in relation to a trust or other similar legal arrangement, a person referred to in AML Rule 7.3.6 (2) or (3).
(2) In relation to a beneficiary of a life insurance or other similar policy, means a natural person who ultimately owns or controls the beneficiary.
Any body corporate, including a limited liability partnership, whether constituted under the law of the
DIFC, an Emirate, the Stateor any other country or territory. Branch Means a place of business within the DIFC:(a) which has no separate legal personality;(b) which forms a legally dependant part of a Relevant Personwhose principal place of business and head office is in a jurisdiction other than the DIFC; and(c) through which the Relevant Personcarries on business in or from the DIFC. Cabinet Decision No. 10 of 2019 Means Federal Cabinet Decision No. 10 of 2019 on the Implementing Regulation of Federal Law No. 20 of 2018. Cabinet Decision No. 20 of 2019 Means Federal Cabinet Decision No. 20 of 2019 regarding Terrorism Lists Regulation and Implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions on the Suppression and Combating of Terrorism, Terrorist Financing and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, and Related Resolutions. Client Has the meaning in chapter 2 of the Conduct of Business module. company service provider Means a person, not falling into parts (1)(a) to (e) or (g) of the definition of a DNFBPthat, by way of business, provides any of the following services to a customer:(a) acting as a formation agent of legal persons;(b) acting as (or arranging for another person to act as) a director or secretary of a company, a partner of a partnership, or a similar position in relation to other legal persons;(c) providing a registered office, business address or accommodation, correspondence or administrative address for a company, a partnership or any other legal person or arrangement; or(d) acting as (or arranging for another person to act as) a nominee shareholder for another person. Contract of Insurance Has the meaning in GEN Rule A4.1.1. CTF Means counter-terrorist financing. customer Unless otherwise provided, means:(a) a person where, in relation to a business relationship between the person and a Relevant Person, there is a firm intention or commitment by each party to enter into a contractual relationship or where there is a firm commitment by each party to enter into a transaction, in connection with a product or service provided by the Relevant Person;(b) a Clientof an Authorised Firm;(c) a Memberor prospective Memberof, or an applicant for admission of Securitiesto trading on, an Authorised Market Institution;(d) in relation to a Single Family Office, a member of the Single Family; or(e) a person with whom a Relevant Personis otherwise establishing or has established a business relationship. Customer Due Diligence(CDD) Means the measures referred to in AML section 7.3. Designated Non-Financial Business or Profession(DNFBP) Means:(1) The following class of persons whose business or profession is carried on in or from the DIFC:(a) a real estate developer or agency which carries out transactions with a customer involving the buying or selling of real property;(b) a dealer in precious metals or precious stones;[deleted](d) a law firm, notary firm, or other independent legal business;(e) an accounting firm, audit firm or insolvency firm;(f) a company service provider; or(g) a Single Family Office.(2) A person who is an Authorised Personor a Registered Auditoris not a DNFBP. DIFCentity Means a legal person which is incorporated or registered in the DIFC(excluding a registered Branch). Domestic Fund A Fundestablished or domiciled in the DIFC. Employee Means an individual:(a) who is employed or appointed by a person in connection with that person's business, whether under a contract of service or for services or otherwise; or(b) whose services, under an arrangement between that person and a third party, are placed at the disposal and under the control of that person. Enhanced Customer Due Diligence Means undertaking Customer Due Diligenceand the enhanced measures under Rule 7.4.1. FATF Means the Financial Action Task Force. FATFRecommendations Means the publication entitled the "International Standards on Combatting Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism and Proliferation" as published and amended from time to time by FATF. Federal AML legislation Means all U.A.E Federal Laws and their implementing regulations relating to money laundering, terrorist financing and the financing of illegal organisations, as well as sanctions compliance, including Federal Law No. 20 of 2018, Federal Law No. 7 of 2014, Cabinet Decision No. 10 of 2019 and Cabinet Decision No. 20 of 2019. Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 Means U.A.EFederal Law No.20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism and Illegal Organisations. Federal Law No. 7 of 2014 Means U.A.E Federal Law No. 7 of 2014 on Combating Terrorism Offences. FIU The Financial Intelligence Unit of the U.A.E. Financial Institution A regulated or unregulated entity, whose activities are primarily financial in nature. Financial Services Regulator Means a regulator of financial services activities established in a jurisdiction other than the DIFC. foundation Means a foundation established under the DIFC Foundations Law2018 or under any other law. Governing Body Means the board of directors, partners, committee of management or other governing body of:(a) a Body Corporateor Partnership; or(b) an unincorporated association carrying on a trade or business, with or without a view to profit. Group Means a Groupof entities which includes an entity (the 'first entity') and:(a) any parent of the first entity; and(b) any subsidiaries (direct or indirect) of the parent or parents in (a) or the first entity; or(c) for a legal person which is not a body corporate, refers to that person and any other associated legal persons who are in an equivalent relationship to that in (a) and (b). Illegal Organisation An organisation the establishment or activities of which have been declared to be criminal under Federal AML legislation. IMF The International Monetary Fund. International Organisation Means an organisation established by formal political agreement between member countries, where the agreement has the status of an international treaty, and the organisation is recognised in the law of countries which are members. Law Means the Regulatory Law. legal arrangement Means an express trust or any other similar legal arrangement. legal person Means any entity other than a natural person that can establish a customer relationship with a Relevant Personor otherwise own property. This can include companies, bodies corporate or unincorporate, foundations, anstalten, partnerships, associations, states and governments and other relevantly similar entities. Member A person admitted as a member of an Authorised Market Institutionin accordance with its Business Rules. MENAFATF The Middle East and North Africa Financial Action Task Force. Money Laundering Reporting Officer(MLRO) Means the person appointed by a Relevant Personpursuant to Rule 11.2.1(1). natural person Means an individual. OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. person Means a natural or legal person. Politically Exposed Person(PEP) Means a natural person (and includes, where relevant, a family member or close associate) who is or has been entrusted with a prominent public function, whether in the Stateor elsewhere, including but not limited to, a head of state or of government, senior politician, senior government, judicial or military official, ambassador, senior person in an International Organisation, senior executive of a state owned corporation, an important political party official, or a member of senior management or an individual who has been entrusted with similar functions such as a director or a deputy director.
This definition does not include middle ranking or more junior individuals in the above categories.
Registered Auditor Has the meaning given to that term in the Regulatory Law Regulated Exchange Means an exchange regulated by a Financial Services Regulator. Regulated Financial Institution A person who does not hold a Licencebut who is authorised in a jurisdiction other than the DIFCto carry on any financial service by another Financial Services Regulator. Relevant Person Has the meaning given to that term in Rule 1.1.2. senior management Means:
(1) In relation to a
Relevant Personevery member of the Relevant Person'sexecutive management and includes:(a) for a DIFCentity, every member of the Relevant Person's Governing Body;(b) for a Branch, the person or persons who control the day to day operations of the Relevant Personin the DIFCand would include, at a minimum, the senior executive report or equivalent officer, such as the managing director; or(c) for a Registered Auditor, every member of the Relevant Person'sexecutive management in the U.A.E.
(2) In relation to a customer that is a body corporate, every member of the body corporate's Governing Body and the person or persons who control the day-to-day operations of the body corporate, including its senior executive officer, chief operating officer and chief financial officer.
Shell Bank A bank that has no physical presence in the country in which it is incorporated or licensed and which is not affiliated with a regulated financial group that is subject to effective consolidated supervision. Simplified Customer Due Diligence Means Customer Due Diligenceas modified under Rule 7.5.1. Single Family Has the meaning given to that term in the DIFC Single Family OfficeRegulations. Single Family Office Has the meaning given to that term in the DIFC Single Family OfficeRegulations. source of funds Means the origin of funds which relate to a transaction or service and includes how such funds are connected to the source of wealth of a customer of Beneficial Owner. source of wealth Means how the global wealth or net worth of a customer or Beneficial Owneris or was acquired or accumulated. State Means the U.A.E. Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) Means a report regarding suspicious activity (including a suspicious transaction) made to the FIUunder Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 and Cabinet Decision No. 10 of 2019. transaction Means any transaction undertaken by a Relevant Personfor or on behalf of a customer in the course of carrying on a business in or from the DIFC.Derived from RM117/2013 [VER9/07-13]
[Amended] DFSA RM132/2014 (Made 21st August 2014). [VER10/06-14]
[Amended] DFSA RM156/2015 (Made 9th December 2015) [VER35/02-16]
[Amended] DFSA RM196/2016 (Made 7th December 2016). [VER13/02-17]
[Amended] DFSA RM223/2018 (Made 18th April 2018). [VER14/07-18]
[Amended] DFSA RM231/2018 (Made 6th June 2018) [VER15/07-18]
[Amended] DFSA RM258/2019 (Made 26th June 2019). [VER16/07-19]
AML 4 AML 4 Applying a Risk-Based Approach
Figure 1. The Risk-Based Approach (RBA)
AML 4.1 AML 4.1 The Risk-Based Approach
AML 4.1.1 AML 4.1.1
Relevant Personmust:(a) assess and address its AML risks under this module by reviewing the risks to which the person is exposed as a result of the nature of its business, customers, products, services and any other matters which are relevant in the context of money laundering and then adopting a proportionate approach to mitigate those risks; and(b) ensure that, when undertaking any risk-based assessment for the purposes of complying with a requirement of this module, such assessment is:(i) objective and proportionate to the risks;(ii) based on reasonable grounds;(iii) properly documented; and(iv) reviewed and updated at appropriate intervals.
AML 4.1.1 Guidance1. Rule 4.1.1 requires a
Relevant Personto adopt an approach to AML which is proportionate to the risks. This is called the "risk-based approach" ("RBA") and is illustrated in figure 1 above. The DFSAexpects the RBA to be a key part of the Relevant Person'smoney laundering compliance culture and to cascade down from the senior management to the rest of the organisation. Embedding the RBA within its business allows a Relevant Personto make decisions and allocate AML resources in the most efficient and effective way.2. In implementing the RBA, a Relevant Personis expected to have in place processes to identify and assess money laundering risks. After the risk assessment, the Relevant Personis expected to monitor, manage and mitigate the risks in a way that is proportionate to the Relevant Person's exposure to those money laundering risks. The general principle is that where there are higher risks of money laundering, a Relevant Personis required to take enhanced measures to manage and mitigate those risks, and that, correspondingly, when the risks are lower, simplified measures are permitted.3. The RBA discourages a "tick-box" approach to AML. Instead a Relevant Personis required to assess relevant money laundering risks and adopt a proportionate response to such risks. The outcome of using the RBA is akin to using a sliding scale, where the type of CDDundertaken on each customer will ultimately depend on the outcome of the risk-based assessment made of such customer under this chapter.4. The Rules regarding record-keeping for the purposes of this module are in section 14.4. These Rules apply in relation to Rule 4.1.1(b)(iii).
AML 5 AML 5 Business Risk Assessment
Figure 2. Business risk-based assessment
AML 5.1 AML 5.1 Assessing business AML risks
Relevant Personmust:(a) take appropriate steps to identify and assess money laundering risks to which its business is exposed, taking into consideration the nature, size and complexity of its activities;(b) when identifying and assessing the risks in (a), take into account, to the extent relevant, any vulnerabilities relating to:(i) its type of customers and their activities;(ii) the countries or geographic areas in which it does business;(iii) its products, services and activity profiles;(iv) its distribution channels and business partners;(v) the complexity and volume of its transactions;(vi) the development of new products and new business practices, including new delivery mechanisms, channels and partners; and(vii) the use of new or developing technologies for both new and pre-existing products;(c) take appropriate measures to ensure that any risk identified as part of the assessment in (a) is taken into account in its day to day operations, including in relation to:(i) the development of new products, business practices and technologies referred to in AML Rule 5.1.3;(ii) the taking on of new customers; and(iii) changes to its business profile.
Relevant Personmust use the information obtained in undertaking its business risk assessment to:(a) develop and maintain its AML policies, procedures, systems and controls required by Rule 5.2.1;(b) ensure that its AML policies, procedures, systems and controls adequately mitigate the risks identified as part of the assessment in Rule 5.1.1;(c) assess the effectiveness of its AML policies, procedures, systems and controls as required by Rule 5.2.1(c);(d) assist in allocation and prioritisation of AML resources; and(e) assist in the carrying out of the customer risk assessment under chapter 6.
New products, business practices and technologies
AML 5.1.3 AML 5.1.3(1) This Rule applies in relation to:(a) the development of new products and new business practices, including new delivery mechanisms, channels and partners; and(b) the use of new or developing technologies for both new and existing products.(2) Without limiting AML Rules 5.1.1 and 5.1.2, a
Relevant Personmust take reasonable steps to ensure that it has:(a) assessed and identified the money laundering risks relating to the product, business practice or technology; and(b) taken appropriate steps to manage and mitigate the risks identified under (a), before it launches or uses the new product, practice or technology.before it launches or uses the new product, practice or technology.
AML 5.1.3 Guidance1. Unless a
Relevant Personunderstands the money laundering risks to which it is exposed, it cannot take appropriate steps to prevent its business being used for the purposes of money laundering. Money laundering risks vary from business to business depending on the nature of the business, the type of customers a business has, and the nature of the products and services sold.2. Using the RBA, a Relevant Personshould assess its own vulnerabilities to money laundering and take all reasonable steps to eliminate or manage such risks. The results of this assessment will also feed into the Relevant Person'srisk assessment of its customers under chapter 6.3. Under Article 4 of Cabinet Decision No.10 of 2019, in assessing its money laundering risks and taking steps to mitigate those risks, a Relevant Personis required to take into consideration the results of the National Risk Assessment prepared by the National Anti-Money Laundering and Combating Financing of Terrorism Committee (NAMLCFTC).
AML 5.2 AML 5.2 AML Systems and Controls
AML 5.2.1 AML 5.2.1
Relevant Personmust:(a) establish and maintain effective policies, procedures, systems and controls to prevent opportunities for money laundering in relation to the Relevant Personand its activities;(b) ensure that its systems and controls in (a):(i) include the provision to the Relevant Person'ssenior management of regular management information on the operation and effectiveness of its AML systems and controls necessary to identify, measure, manage and control the Relevant Person'smoney laundering risks;(ii) enable it to determine:(A) whether a customer or a Beneficial Owneris a Politically Exposed Person(PEP); and(B) if it provides a customer with a life insurance or other similar policy, whether a beneficiary of the policy, or a Beneficial Ownerof the beneficiary, is a PEP; and(iii) enable the Relevant Personto comply with these Rules and Federal AML legislation; and(c) ensure that regular risk assessments are carried out on the adequacy of the Relevant Person'sAML systems and controls to ensure that they continue to enable it to identify, assess, monitor and manage money laundering risk adequately, and are comprehensive and proportionate to the nature, scale and complexity of its activities.
AML 5.2.1 Guidance
In Rule 5.2.1(c) the regularity of risk assessments will depend on the nature, size and complexity of the
Relevant Person'sbusiness and also on when any material changes are made to its business.
AML 6 AML 6 Customer Risk Assessment
Figure 3. Customer risk-based assessment
AML 6 Guidance1. This chapter prescribes the risk-based assessment that must be undertaken by a
Relevant Personon a customer and the proposed business relationship, transaction or product. The outcome of this process is to produce a risk rating for a customer, which determines the level of Customer Due Diligence(CDD) which will apply to that customer under chapter 7. That chapter prescribes the requirements of CDDand of Enhanced CDDfor high risk customers and Simplified CDDfor low risk customers.2. CDDin the context of AML refers to the process of identifying a customer, verifying such identification and monitoring the customer's business and money laundering risk on an ongoing basis. CDDis required to be undertaken following a risk-based assessment of the customer and the proposed business relationship, transaction or product.3. Relevant Personsshould note that the ongoing CDDrequirements in Rule 7.6.1 require a Relevant Personto ensure that it reviews a customer's risk rating to ensure that it remains appropriate in light of the AML risks.4. The DFSAis aware that in practice there will often be some degree of overlap between the customer risk assessment and CDD. For example, a Relevant Personmay undertake some aspects of CDD, such as identifying a Beneficial Owner, when it performs a risk assessment of the customer. Conversely, a Relevant Personmay also obtain relevant information as part of CDDwhich has an impact on its customer risk assessment. An example of such relevant information is information on the ownership and control structure of the customer. Where information obtained as part of CDDof a customer affects the risk rating of a customer, the change in risk rating should be reflected in the degree of CDDundertaken.
AML 6.1 AML 6.1 Assessing Customer AML Risks
AML 6.1.1(1) A
Relevant Personmust:(a) undertake a risk-based assessment of every customer; and(b) assign the customer a risk rating proportionate to the customer's money laundering risks.(2) The customer risk assessment in (1) must be completed prior to undertaking Customer Due Diligencefor new customers, and whenever it is otherwise appropriate for existing customers.(3) When undertaking a risk-based assessment of a customer under (1)(a) a Relevant Personmust:(a) identify the customer and any Beneficial Owner;(b) obtain information on the purpose and intended nature of the business relationship;(c) obtain information on, and take into consideration, the nature of the customer's business;(ca) take into consideration the nature of the customer, its ownership and control structure, and its Beneficial Owner(if any);(d) take into consideration the nature of the customer business relationship with the Relevant Person;(e) take into consideration the customer's country of origin, residence, nationality, place of incorporation or place of business;(f) take into consideration the relevant product, service or transaction;(fa) if it is providing a customer with a life insurance or other similar policy, take into consideration the beneficiary of the policy and any Beneficial Ownerof the beneficiary; and(g) take into consideration the outcomes of business risk assessment under chapter 5.
Factors that may indicate higher money laundering risk
AML 6.1.2(1) When assessing if there is a high risk of money laundering in a particular situation, a
Relevant Personmust take into account, among other things:(a) customer risk factors, including whether:(i) the business relationship is conducted in unusual circumstances;(ii) the customer is resident, established or registered in a geographical area of high risk (as set out in paragraph (c));(iii) the customer is a legal person or legal arrangement that is a vehicle for holding personal assets;(iv) the customer is a company that has nominee shareholders or shares in bearer form;(v) the customer is a business that is cash intensive, such as a business that receives a majority of its revenue in cash; and(vi) the corporate structure of the customer is unusual or excessively complex given the nature of the business;(b) product, service, transaction or delivery channel risk factors, including whether:(i) the service involves private banking;(ii) the product, service or transaction is one that might favour anonymity;(iii) the situation involves non face-to-face business relationships or transactions, without certain safeguards, such as electronic signatures;(iv) payments will be received from unknown or unassociated third parties;(v) new products and new business practices are involved, including new delivery mechanisms or the use of new or developing technologies for both new and pre-existing products; and(vi) the service involves the provision of nominee directors, nominee shareholders or shadow directors, or the formation of companies in another country; and(c) geographical risk factors, including:(i) countries identified in reports by credible sources, such as mutual evaluations, detailed assessment reports or follow-up reports, as:(A) not having effective systems to counter money laundering; or(B) not implementing requirements to counter money laundering that are consistent with FATFRecommendations;(ii) countries identified by credible sources as having significant levels of corruption or other criminal activity, such as terrorism, money laundering or the production and supply of illicit drugs;(iii) countries subject to sanctions, embargos or similar measures issued by, for example, the United Nations or the State;(iv) countries providing funding or support for terrorism; and(v) countries that have organisations operating within their territory that have been designated by the State, other countries or International Organisations as terrorist organisations.(2) For the purposes of (1)(c), a credible source includes, but is not limited to, FATF, the IMF, the World Bank, the OECD and other International Organisations.(3) When assessing the risk factors referred to in (1), Relevant Personsmust bear in mind that the presence of one or more risk factors may not always indicate a high risk of money laundering in a particular situation.
Factors that may indicate lower money laundering risk
AML 6.1.3(1) When assessing if there is a low risk of money laundering in a particular situation, a
Relevant Personmust take into account, among other things:(a) customer risk factors, including whether the customer is:(i) a public body or a publicly owned enterprise;(ii) resident, established or registered in a geographical area of lower risk (as set out in paragraph (c));(iii) an Authorised Person;(iv) a Regulated Financial Institutionthat is subject to regulation and supervision, including AMLregulation and supervision, in a jurisdiction with AMLregulations that are equivalent to the standards set out in the FATFRecommendations;(v) a Subsidiaryof a Regulated Financial Institutionreferred to in (iv), if the law that applies to the Parentensures that the Subsidiaryalso observes the same AMLstandards as its Parent;(vi) a company whose Securities are listed by the DFSA, another Financial Services Regulatoror a Regulated Exchangeand which is subject to disclosure obligations broadly equivalent to those set out in the Markets Rules;(vii) a law firm, notary firm or other legal business that carries on its business in or from the DIFC; and(viii) an accounting firm, insolvency firm, Registered Auditoror other audit firm that carries on its business in or from the DIFC;(b) product, service, transaction or delivery channel risk factors, including whether the product or service is:(i) a Contract of Insurancethat is non-life insurance;(ii) a Contract of Insurancethat is a life insurance product with no investment return or redemption or surrender value;(iii) an insurance policy for a pension scheme that does not provide for an early surrender option and cannot be used as collateral;(iv) a Contract of Insurancewhich is a reinsurance contract that is ceded by an insurer who is a Regulated Financial Institution;(v) a pension, superannuation or similar scheme that satisfies the following conditions:(A) the scheme provides retirement benefits to employees;(B) contributions to the scheme are made by way of deductions from wages; and(C) the scheme rules do not permit the assignment of a member's interest under the scheme; and(vi) a product where the risks of money laundering are adequately managed by other factors such as transaction limits or transparency of ownership; and(c) geographical risk factors, including whether:(i) a country has been identified by credible sources as having effective systems to counter money laundering;(ii) a country is identified by credible sources as having a low level of corruption or other criminal activity, such as terrorism, money laundering, or the production and supply of illicit drugs; and(iii) on the basis of reports by credible sources, such as mutual evaluations, detailed assessment reports or follow-up reports, a country:(A) has requirements to counter money laundering that are consistent with the FATFRecommendations; and(B) effectively implements those Recommendations.(2) For the purposes of (1)(c), a credible source includes, but is not limited to, FATF, the IMF, the World Bank, the OECD and other International Organisations.(3) When assessing the risk factors referred to in (1), Relevant Personsmust bear in mind that the presence of one or more risk factors may not always indicate a low risk of money laundering in a particular situation.
Business relationship not to be established if ownership arrangements prevent identification of beneficial owners
AML 6.1.4 AML 6.1.4
Relevant Personmust not establish a business relationship with the customer which is a legal person or legal arrangement if the ownership or control arrangements of the customer prevent the Relevant Personfrom identifying one or more of the customer's Beneficial Owners.
AML 6.1.2 Guidance [Deleted]
AML 6.1.2 Guidance [Deleted]
AML 6.1.2 [Deleted]
Relevant Personmust not establish or maintain a business relationship with a Shell Bank.
Anonymous or fictitious accounts
Relevant Personmust not establish or maintain an anonymous account, an account in a fictitious name, or a nominee account which is held in the name of one person but which is controlled by or held for the benefit of another person whose identity has not been disclosed to the Relevant Person.
Use of numbered or abbreviated accounts for internal purposes
AML 6.1.7 AML 6.1.7
Relevant Personuses a numbered account or an account with an abbreviated name, it must ensure that:(a) such an account is used only for internal purposes;(b) it has undertaken the same Customer Due Diligenceprocedures in relation to the account holder as are required for other account holders;(c) it maintains the same information in relation to the account and account holder as is required for other accounts and account holders; and(d) staff performing AMLfunctions, including staff responsible for identifying and monitoring transactions for suspicious activity, and staff performing compliance and audit functions, have full access to information about the account and the account holder.
Guidance on the customer risk assessment1. The risk assessment of a customer, which is illustrated in figure 3 above, requires a
Relevant Personto allocate an appropriate risk rating to every customer. The DFSAwould expect risk ratings to be either descriptive, such as "low", "medium" or "high", or a sliding numeric scale such as 1 for the lowest risk to 10 for the highest. Depending on the outcome of a Relevant Person'sassessment of its customer's money laundering risk, a Relevant Personshould decide to what degree CDDwill need to be performed. For a high risk customer, the Relevant Personwill need to undertake Enhanced CDD under AML section 7.4 as well as the normal CDDset out in AML section 7.3. For a low risk customer, the Relevant Personmay be able to undertake Simplified CDD in accordance with AML section 7.5. For any other customer, the Relevant Personwill be required to undertake the normal CDDset out in AML section 7.3.2. Using the RBA, a Relevant Personcould, when assessing two customers with near identical risk profiles, consider that one is high risk and the other low risk. This may occur, for example, where both customers may be from the same high risk country, but one customer may be a customer in relation to a low risk product or may be a long-standing customer of a Groupcompany who has been introduced to the Relevant Person.3. In AML Rule 6.1.4, ownership arrangements which may prevent the Relevant Personfrom identifying one or more Beneficial Ownersinclude bearer shares and other negotiable instruments in which ownership is determined by possession.
Guidance on the term "customer"4. The point at which a person becomes a customer will vary from business to business. However, the
DFSAconsiders that it would usually occur at or prior to the business relationship being formalised, for example, by the signing of a customer agreement or the acceptance of terms of business.5. The DFSAdoes not consider that a person would be a customer of a Relevant Personmerely because such person receives marketing information from a Relevant Personor where a Relevant Personrefers a person who is not a customer to a third party (including a Groupmember).6. The DFSAconsiders that a counterparty would generally be a "customer" for the purposes of this module and would therefore require a Relevant Personto undertake CDDon such a person. However, this would not include a counterparty in a transaction undertaken on a Regulated Exchange. Nor would it include suppliers of ordinary business services, for consumption by the Relevant Personsuch as cleaning, catering, stationery, IT or other similar services.7. A Representative Officeshould not have any customers in relation to its DIFCoperations.
Guidance on high risk customers [Deleted]
Guidance on low risk customers [Deleted]
Guidance on Shell Banks8. AML Rule 6.1.5 prohibits a
Relevant Personfrom establishing or maintaining a business relationship with a Shell Bank.A Shell Bankis a bank that has no physical presence in the country in which it is incorporated or licensed, and is not affiliated with a regulated financial Groupthat is subject to effective consolidated supervision. The DFSA does not consider that the existence of a local agent or low level staff constitutes physical presence.
Guidance on fictitious and anonymous accounts9. A
Relevant Personshould note that, in addition to the prohibition in AML Rule 6.1.6 against establishing anonymous or fictitious accounts or accounts for unknown persons, the Federal AML legislation also prohibits the creation or keeping of records of bank accounts using pseudonyms, fictitious names or numbered accounts, without the account holder's name.
Guidance on Tax Issues10. A
Relevant Personshould, when carrying out a customer risk assessment, consider and assess the tax crime risk associated with the customer and factor such risks into the overall risk assigned to that customer. Many of the factors described in AML Rule 6.1.2 on higher risk customers could also be an indicator of potential tax crimes. For example, the use of complex or unusual corporate structures, the customer's business not being located where the customer lives (without adequate explanation), unusual customer interface, or reluctance by the customer to communicate directly with the Relevant Person.11. If it is justified based on the risk assessment and where concerns arise, a Relevant Personmay wish to seek comfort from its customers by obtaining disclosures or declarations to ascertain if a legitimate explanation exists for the concerns and therefore to allay those concerns.
AML 7 AML 7 Customer Due Diligence
Figure 4. CDD
AML 7.1 AML 7.1 Requirement to Undertake Customer Due Diligence
AML 7.1.1 AML 7.1.1(1) A
Relevant Personmust:(a) undertake Customer Due Diligenceunder AML section 7.3 for each of its customers; and(b) in addition to (a), undertake Enhanced Customer Due Diligenceunder AML Rule 7.4.1 in respect of any customer it has assigned as high risk.(2) A Relevant Personmay undertake Simplified Customer Due Diligencein accordance with AML Rule 7.5.1 by modifying Customer Due Diligenceunder AML section 7.3 for any customer it has assigned as low risk.
AML 7.1.1 Guidance
Relevant Personshould undertake CDDin a manner proportionate to the customer's money laundering risks identified under Rule 6.1.1(1). This means that all customers are subject to CDDunder section 7.3. However, for high risk customers, additional Enhanced CDDmeasures should also be undertaken under section 7.4. For low risk customers, section 7.3 may be modified according to the risks in accordance with section 7.5.
AML 7.2 AML 7.2 Timing of Customer Due Diligence
A Relevant Personmust except as otherwise provided in AML Rule 7.2.2 or in AML section 7.3:(a) undertake the appropriate Customer Due Diligenceunder AML Rule 7.3.1(1)(a) to (c) and AML section 7.3 when it is establishing a business relationship with a customer; and(b) undertake the appropriate Customer Due Diligenceunder AML Rule 7.3.1(1)(d) after establishing a business relationship with a customer.(2) A Relevant Personmust also undertake appropriate Customer Due Diligenceif, at any time:(a) in relation to an existing customer, it doubts the veracity or adequacy of documents, data or information obtained for the purposes of Customer Due Diligence;(b) it suspects money laundering in relation to a person; or(c) there is a change in risk-rating of the customer, or it is otherwise warranted by a change in circumstances of the customer.
Establishing a business relationship before verification
AML 7.2.2 AML 7.2.2(1) A
Relevant Personmay establish a business relationship with a customer before completing the verification required by AML Rule 7.3.1 if the following conditions are met:(a) deferral of the verification of the customer or Beneficial Owneris necessary in order not to interrupt the normal conduct of a business relationship;(b) there is little risk of money laundering occurring and any such risks identified can be effectively managed by the Relevant Person;(c) in relation to a bank account opening, there are adequate safeguards in place to ensure that the account is not closed and transactions are not carried out by or on behalf of the account holder (including any payment from the account to the account holder) before verification has been completed; and(d) subject to (2), the relevant verification is completed as soon as reasonably practicable and in any event no later than 30 days after the establishment of a business relationship.(2) Where a Relevant Personis not reasonably able to comply with the 30 day requirement in (1)(d), it must, prior to the end of the 30 day period:(a) document the reason for its non-compliance;(b) complete the verification in (1) as soon as possible; and(c) record the non-compliance event in its annual AML Return.(3) The DFSAmay specify a period within which a Relevant Personmust complete the verification required by (1) failing which the DFSAmay direct the Relevant Personto cease any business relationship with the customer.(4) A Relevant Personmust ensure that its AML systems and controls referred to in AML Rule 5.2.1 include risk management policies and procedures concerning the conditions under which business relationships may be established with a customer before completing verification.
AML 7.2.2 Guidance1. For the purposes of AML Rule 7.2.1(2)(a), examples of situations which might lead a
Relevant Personto have doubts about the veracity or adequacy of documents, data or information previously obtained could be where there is a suspicion of money laundering in relation to that customer, where there is a material change in the way that the customer's account is operated, which is not consistent with the customer's business profile, or where it appears to the Relevant Personthat a person other than the customer is the real customer.2. In AML Rule 7.2.2(1)(a), situations that the Relevant Personmay take into account include, for example, accepting subscription monies during a short offer period or executing a time critical transaction, which if not executed immediately, would or may cause a customer to incur a financial loss due to price movement or loss of opportunity or when a customer seeks immediate insurance cover.3. When complying with AML Rule 7.2.1, a Relevant Personshould also, where relevant, consider AML Rule 7.7.1 regarding failure to conduct or complete CDDand chapter 13 regarding SARs and tipping off.4. For the purposes of AML Rule 7.2.2(1)(d), the DFSAconsiders that in most situations as soon as reasonably practicable would be within 30 days after the establishment of a business relationship. However, it will depend on the nature of the customer business relationship.
AML 7.3 AML 7.3 Customer Due Diligence Requirements
AML 7.3.1 [Deleted]
Undertaking customer due diligence
AML 7.3.1(1) In undertaking
Customer Due Diligencerequired by AML Rule 7.1.1(1)(a) a Relevant Personmust:(a) identify the customer and verify the customer's identity;(b) identify any Beneficial Ownersof the customer and take reasonable measures to verify the identity of the Beneficial Owners, so that the Relevant Personis satisfied that it knows who the Beneficial Ownersare;(c) if the customer is a legal person or legal arrangement, take reasonable measures to understand the nature of the customer's business and its ownership and control structure; and(d) undertake on-going due diligence of the customer business relationship under AML Rule 7.6.1.(2) If a person ("A") purports to act on behalf of the customer, the Relevant Personmust, in addition to (1)(a):(a) verify that A is authorised to act on the customer's behalf; and(b) identify A and verify A's identity.(3) The verification under (1) and (2) must be based on reliable and independent source documents, data or information.
Identifying and verifying the customer
AML 7.3.2(1) For the purposes of AML Rule 7.3.1(1)(a), a
Relevant Personmust identify a customer and verify the customer's identity in accordance with this Rule.(2) If a customer is a natural person, a Relevant Personmust obtain and verify information about the person's:(a) full name (including any alias);(b) date of birth;(c) nationality;(d) legal domicile; and(e) current residential address (other than a post office box).(3) If a customer is a body corporate, the Relevant Personmust obtain and verify:(a) the full name of the body corporate and any trading name;(b) the address of its registered office and, if different, its principal place of business;(c) the date and place of incorporation or registration;(d) a copy of the certificate of incorporation or registration;(e) the articles of association or other equivalent governing documents of the body corporate; and(f) the full names of its senior management.(4) If a customer is a foundation, the Relevant Personmust obtain and verify:(a) a certified copy of the charter and by-laws of the foundation or any other documents constituting the foundation; and(b) documentary evidence of the appointment of the guardian or any other person who may exercise powers in respect of the foundation.(5) If a customer is an express trust or other similar legal arrangement, the Relevant Personmust obtain and verify:(a) a certified copy of the trust deed or other documents that set out the nature, purpose and terms of the trust or arrangement; and(b) documentary evidence of the appointment of the trustee or any other person exercising powers under the trust or arrangement.
Identifying and verifying beneficial owners: body corporate
AML 7.3.3 AML 7.3.3(1) If a customer is a body corporate, a
Relevant Personmust identify and verify the Beneficial Ownersunder AML Rule 7.3.1(1)(b) in accordance with this Rule.(2) The Relevant Personmust identify:(a) the natural persons who ultimately have a controlling ownership interest in the body corporate, whether legal or beneficial, direct or indirect; and(b) if there is any doubt about whether the natural persons identified under (a) exert control through ownership interests, or if no natural person exerts control through ownership interests, the natural persons exercising control of the body corporate through other means.(3) A Relevant Persondoes not have to identify an ownership interest under (2)(a) if, having regard to a risk-based assessment of the customer, it is reasonably satisfied that the ownership interest is minor and in the circumstances poses no or negligible risk of money laundering.(4) If a Relevant Personhas exhausted all possible means but has not been able to identify the Beneficial Ownersunder (2), and provided it has no grounds for suspecting money laundering, it must treat the senior management of the body corporate as the Beneficial Owners.(5) If (4) applies, the Relevant Personmust keep a record in writing of all the actions it has taken to identify the Beneficial Ownersof the body corporate.
AML 7.3.3 Guidance1. In exceptional circumstances, a
Relevant Personmay not be able to identify any natural person as the ultimate owner or controller of a body corporate. In such a case, provided it has exhausted all other means of identifying the owner or controller and it has no grounds for suspecting money laundering, it can treat each of the members of the senior management of the body corporate as the Beneficial Owners(see AML Rule 7.3.3(4)). However, in such a case the Relevant Personwill need to keep records of all the actions it has taken to identify the Beneficial Owners(see AML Rule 7.3.3(5)).2. If the ownership or control arrangements of a customer are of such a nature that the Relevant Personis prevented from identifying the Beneficial Owners(for example, if Beneficial Ownershold bearer shares or other negotiable instruments and there is no effective system for recording the current holder of the shares or instruments), the Relevant Personis prohibited from establishing a business relationship with the customer under AML Rule 126.96.36.199. For more detailed Guidance on identifying and verifying Beneficial Owners, see the guidance on CDDat the end of AML section 7.3.
Relevant Personis not required to comply with AML Rules 7.3.1(1)(b) and (c) if the customer is either:(a) a body corporate that:(i) has its Securities listed by the DFSA, another Financial Services Regulatoror a Regulated Exchange; and(ii) is subject to disclosure requirements which ensure that adequate information about its business, structure and beneficial ownership is publicly available; or(b) a majority-owned subsidiary of a body corporate referred to in (a).
Identifying and verifying beneficial owners: foundations
AML 7.3.5(1) If a customer is a foundation, a
Relevant Personmust identify and verify the Beneficial Ownersunder AML Rule 7.3.1(1)(b) in accordance with this Rule.(2) The Relevant Personmust identify the founder, guardian, contributors, qualified recipients, other persons entitled to receive any property or income from the foundation and any other natural person who exercises ultimate effective control of the foundation.(3) If the qualified recipients, or other persons entitled to receive property or income from a foundation, are designated by characteristics or by class, the Relevant Personmust obtain sufficient information to satisfy itself that it will be able to establish the identity of the qualified recipient or other person before it makes any payment or transfer of property to the recipient or person.(4) The Relevant Personmust verify the identity of a qualified recipient or other person referred to in (3) before it makes any payment, or transfers any property, from the foundation to that recipient or person.
Identifying and verifying beneficial owners: trusts and similar arrangements
AML 7.3.6(1) If a customer is a legal arrangement, a
Relevant Personmust identify and verify the Beneficial Ownersunder AML Rule 7.3.1(1)(b) in accordance with this Rule.(2) The Relevant Personmust identify:(a) for a trust, the settlor, trustee, protector, enforcer, beneficiaries and any other natural person who exercises ultimate effective control over the trust; and(b) for other types of legal arrangements, persons in equivalent or similar positions to those persons referred to in (a).(3) If the beneficiaries of a trust or arrangement are designated by characteristics or by class, the Relevant Personmust obtain sufficient information about the beneficiaries to satisfy itself that it will be able to establish the identity of a beneficiary:(a) before it makes a distribution to the beneficiary; or(b) when the beneficiary intends to exercise vested rights.(4) The Relevant Personmust verify the identity of a beneficiary referred to in (3) before it makes a distribution to the beneficiary or the beneficiary exercises vested rights.
Identifying and verifying beneficiary of a life insurance policy
AML 7.3.7 AML 7.3.7(1) This Rule applies if a
Relevant Personis providing a customer with a life insurance or other similar policy.(2) The Relevant Personmust, in addition to complying with AML Rule 7.3.1:(a) if a beneficiary is specifically named in the policy, record the name of that person; and(b) if the beneficiaries of the policy are designated by characteristics or by class, obtain sufficient information to satisfy itself that it will be able to establish the identity of the beneficiaries when any payment is due to be made under the policy.(3) The Relevant Personmust undertake the measures referred to in (2) as soon as the beneficiary of the policy is identified or designated.(4) The Relevant Personmust verify the identity of beneficiaries and any Beneficial Ownersof a beneficiary before it makes a payout under the policy.
AML 7.3.7 Guidance
An insurance policy that is similar to a life insurance policy includes life-related protection, or a pension or investment product that pays out to the policyholder or beneficiary upon a particular event occurring or upon redemption.
Politically Exposed Persons: other measures
AML 7.3.8 AML 7.3.8(1) A
Relevant Personmust take reasonable measures to determine:(a) if a customer, or a Beneficial Ownerof a customer, is a Politically Exposed Person(PEP); and(b) for a life insurance or other similar policy, if a beneficiary of the policy, or a Beneficial Ownerof a beneficiary, is a PEP.(2) If a customer, or a Beneficial Ownerof a customer, is a PEP, a Relevant Personmust:(a) obtain the approval of senior management to commence or continue the business relationship with the customer;(b) take reasonable measures to establish the source of wealth and source of funds of the customer or Beneficial Owner; and(c) increase the degree and nature of monitoring of the business relationship, to determine whether the customer's transactions or activities appear unusual or suspicious.(3) If a beneficiary of a life insurance or other similar policy, or a Beneficial Ownerof a beneficiary, is a PEP, a Relevant Personmust:(a) obtain the approval of senior management to make any payout under the policy;(b) take reasonable measures to establish the source of wealth and source of funds of the beneficiary or Beneficial Ownerof the beneficiary; and(c) increase the degree and nature of monitoring of its business relationship with the policyholder, to determine whether the customer's transactions or activities appear unusual or suspicious.(4) A Relevant Personmust carry out the additional Customer Due Diligencereferred to in (3) before it makes any payout under the policy.
AML 7.3.8 Guidance on CDD1. Items (a) to (c) in AML Rule 7.3.2(2) should be obtained from a current valid passport or, where a customer does not possess a passport, an official identification document which includes a photograph. The concept of domicile generally refers to the place which a person regards as his permanent home and with which he has the closest ties or which is his place of origin.2. Under AML Rule 7.3.1(3), a
Relevant Personis required to verify the identity of a person based on reliable and independent source documents, data or information. A Relevant Personshould generally have sight of original identification documents and retain a copy of the identification document. However in complying with AML Rule 7.3.1, it may not always be possible to obtain original documents. Where identification documents cannot be obtained in original form, for example, because a Relevant Personhas no physical contact with the customer, the Relevant Personshould obtain a copy certified as a true copy by a person of good standing such as a registered lawyer or notary, a chartered accountant, a bank manager, a police officer, an Employeeof the person's embassy or consulate, or other similar person. The DFSAconsiders that downloading publicly-available information from an official source (such as a regulator's or other official government website) is sufficient to satisfy the requirements of AML Rule 7.3.1. The DFSAalso considers that CDDinformation and research obtained from a reputable company or information-reporting agency may also be acceptable as a reliable and independent source as would banking references and, on a risk-sensitive basis, information obtained from researching reliable and independent public information found on the internet or on commercial databases.3. For higher risk situations the DFSAwould expect identification information to be independently verified, using both public and non-public sources.
AML 7.3.8 Guidance on identification and verification of Beneficial Owners4. In determining whether an individual meets the definition of a
Beneficial Owner, regard should be had to all the circumstances of the case, in particular the size of an individual's legal or beneficial ownership in a transaction. The question of what is a "minor" ownership interest for the purposes of the definition of a Beneficial Ownerin AML Rule 7.3.3 will depend on the individual circumstances of the customer. The DFSAconsiders that the question of whether an ownership interest is minor should be considered in the context of the Relevant Person'sknowledge of the customer and the customer risk assessment and the risk of money laundering.5. When identifying Beneficial Owners, a Relevant Personis expected to adopt a substantive (as opposed to form over substance) approach to CDDfor legal persons. Adopting a substantive approach means focusing on the money laundering risks of the customer and the product/service and avoiding an approach which focusses purely on the legal form of an arrangement or sets fixed percentages at which Beneficial Ownersare identified (or not). It should take all reasonable steps to establish and understand a corporate customer's legal ownership and control and to identify the Beneficial Owner. The DFSAdoes not set explicit ownership or control thresholds in defining the Beneficial Ownerbecause the DFSAconsiders that the applicable threshold to adopt will ultimately depend on the risks associated with the customer, and so the DFSAexpects a Relevant Personto adopt the RBA and justify on reasonable grounds an approach which is proportionate to the risks identified. A Relevant Personshould not set fixed thresholds for identifying the Beneficial Ownerwithout objective and documented justification as required by AML Rule 4.1.1. An overly formal approach to defining the Beneficial Ownermay result in a criminal "gaming" the system by always keeping his financial interest below the relevant threshold6. The DFSAconsiders that in some circumstances no threshold should be used when identifying Beneficial Ownersbecause it may be important to identify all underlying Beneficial Ownersin order to ensure that they are not associated or connected in some way. This may be appropriate where there are a small number of investors in an account or fund, each with a significant financial holding and the customer-specific risks are higher. However, where the customer-specific risks are lower, a threshold can be appropriate. For example, for a low-risk corporate customer which, combined with a lower-risk product or service, a percentage threshold may be appropriate for identifying "control" of the legal person for the purposes of the definition of a Beneficial Owner.7. For a retail investment fund which is widely-held and where the investors invest via pension contributions, the DFSAwould not expect the manager of the fund to look through to any underlying investors where there are none with any material control or ownership levels in the fund. However, for a closely-held fund with a small number of investors, each with a large shareholding or other interest, the DFSAwould expect a Relevant Personto identify and verify each of the Beneficial Owners, depending on the risks identified as part of its risk-based assessment of the customer. For a corporate health policy with defined benefits, the DFSAwould not expect a Relevant Personto identify the Beneficial Owners.8. Under Federal AML legislation, if the customer is a legal person, the Relevant Personmust identify any person who, alone or jointly with other persons, has a controlling ownership interest of 25% or more in the legal person i.e. it applies a specified threshold. This does not affect the approach that should be taken under AML Rule 7.3.1(1)(b) and AML Rule 7.3.3 for verifying the identity of Beneficial Owners, where no threshold is specified (see Guidance items 4 to 7 above). As a result, under the Federal AML legislation a Relevant Personwill need to obtain information identifying natural persons who have a controlling interest of hold more than 25%. Then, in accordance with the risk-based approach in Guidance items 4 to 7, the Relevant Personshould determine whether it is necessary also to identify other persons who may be Beneficial Owners, and verify their identity
AML 7.3.8 Guidance on politically exposed persons9. Individuals who have, or have had, a high political profile, or hold, or have held, public office, can pose a higher money laundering risk to a
Relevant Personas their position may make them vulnerable to corruption. This risk also extends to members of their families and to known close associates. Politically Exposed Person("PEP") status itself does not, of course, incriminate individuals or entities.10. Generally, a foreign PEPpresents a higher risk of money laundering because there is a greater risk that such person, if he was committing money laundering, would attempt to place his money offshore where the customer is less likely to be recognised as a PEPand where it would be more difficult for law enforcement agencies in his home jurisdiction to confiscate or freeze his criminal property.11. Corruption-related money laundering risk increases when a Relevant Persondeals with a PEP. Corruption may involve serious crimes and has become the subject of increasing global concern. Corruption offences are predicate crimes under the Federal AML legislation. A Relevant Personshould note that customer relationships with family members or close associates of PEPsinvolve similar risks to those associated with PEPsthemselves.12. The DFSAconsiders that after leaving office a PEPmay remain a higher risk for money laundering if such person continues to exert political influence or otherwise pose a risk of corruption.13. The fact that an individual is a PEPdoes not automatically mean that the individual must be assessed to be a high risk customer. A Relevant Personwill need to assess the particular circumstances relating to each PEPto determine what risk category is appropriate. If the PEPis assigned a high risk, then the Relevant Personwill need to undertake the Enhanced Customer Due Diligencemeasures under AML Rule 7.4.1. However, even if a PEPis not assigned a high risk, the Relevant Personis required as a minimum to undertake the additional customer due diligence measures specified in AML Rule 7.3.8(2) and (3) for PEPs.
AML 7.4 AML 7.4 Enhanced Customer Due Diligence
AML 7.4.1 AML 7.4.1
Relevant Personis required to undertake Enhanced Customer Due Diligenceunder AML Rule 7.1.1(1)(b) it must, to the extent applicable to the customer:(a) obtain and verify additional:(i) identification information on the customer and any Beneficial Owner;(ii) information on the intended nature of the business relationship; and(iii) information on the reasons for a transaction;(b) update more regularly the Customer Due Diligenceinformation which it holds on the customer and any Beneficial Owners;(c) take reasonable measures to establish:(i) the source of funds; and(ii) the source of wealth,
of the customer or, if applicable, of the
Beneficial Owner;(d) increase the degree and nature of monitoring of the business relationship, in order to determine whether the customer's transactions or activities appear unusual or suspicious;(e) obtain the approval of senior management to commence a business relationship with a customer; and(f) where applicable, require that any first payment made by a customer in order to open an account with a Relevant Personmust be carried out through a bank account in the customer's name with:(i) a Bank;(ii) a Regulated Financial Institutionwhose entire operations are subject to regulation and supervision, including AML regulation and supervision, in a jurisdiction with AML regulations which are equivalent to the standards set out in the FATF recommendations; or(iii) a Subsidiaryof a Regulated Financial Institutionreferred to in (ii), if the law that applies to the Parentensures that the Subsidiary also observes the same AML standards as its Parent.
AML 7.4.1 Guidance1. In AML Rule 7.4.1 Enhanced
CDDmeasures are only mandatory to the extent that they are applicable to the relevant customer or the circumstances of the business relationship and to the extent that the risks would reasonably require it. Therefore, the extent of additional measures to conduct is a matter for the Relevant Personto determine on a case by case basis.2. In AML RM117/2013(e), senior management approval may be given by an individual member of the Relevant Person'ssenior management or by a committee of senior managers appointed to consider high risk customers. It may also be outsourced within the Group.3. For high risk customers, a Relevant Personshould, in order to mitigate the perceived and actual risks, exercise a greater degree of diligence throughout the customer relationship and should endeavour to understand the nature of the customer's business and consider whether it is consistent and reasonable.4. A Relevant Personshould be satisfied that a customer's use of complex legal structures and/or the use of trust and private investment vehicles, has a genuine and legitimate purpose.5. For enhanced CDD, a Relevant Personhas to take reasonable measures to establish the source of funds. That is, where the funds for a particular service or transaction will come from (e.g. a specific bank account held with a specific financial institution) and whether that funding is consistent with the source of wealth of the customer or, if applicable, of the Beneficial Owner.6. For enhanced CDD, where there is a Beneficial Owner, establishing the customer's source of funds and wealth may require enquiring into the Beneficial Owner's source of funds and wealth because the source of the funds would normally be the Beneficial Ownerand not the customer.7. The DFSAconsiders that taking reasonable measures to establish the source of funds includes obtaining independent corroborating evidence such as proof of dividend payments connected to a shareholding, bank statements, salary/bonus certificates, loan documentation and proof of a transaction which gave rise to the payment into the account. A customer should be able to demonstrate and document how the relevant funds are connected to a particular event which gave rise to the payment into the account or to the source of the funds for a transaction.8. The DFSAconsiders that verification of source of wealth includes obtaining independent corroborating evidence such as share certificates, publicly-available registers of ownership, bank or brokerage account statements, probate documents, audited accounts and financial statements, news items from a reputable source and other similar evidence. For example:a. for a legal person, this might be achieved by obtaining its financial or annual reports published on its website or news articles and press releases that reflect its financial situation or the profitability of its business; andb. for a natural person, this might include documentary evidence which corroborates answers given to questions on the source of wealth in an application form or customer questionnaire. For example, if a natural person attributes the source of his wealth to inheritance, he may be asked to provide a copy of the relevant will or grant of probate. In other cases, a natural person may be asked to provide sufficient bank or salary statements covering a number of years to draw up a picture of his source of wealth.9. A Relevant Personmay commission a third party vendor report to obtain further information on a customer or transaction or to investigate a customer or Beneficial Ownerin very high risk cases. A third party vendor report may be particularly useful where there is little or no publicly-available information on a person or on a legal arrangement or where a Relevant Personhas difficulty in obtaining and verifying information.10. In AML Rule 7.4.1(f), circumstances where it may be applicable to require the first payment made by a customer in order to open an account with a Relevant Personto be carried out through a bank account in the customer's name with a financial institution specified in that paragraph include:a. where, following the use of other Enhanced CDDmeasures, the Relevant Personis not satisfied with the results of due diligence; orb. as an alternative measure, where one of the measures in AML Rule 7.4.1 (a) to (e) cannot be carried out.
AML 7.5 AML 7.5 Simplified customer due diligence
AML 7.5.1 AML 7.5.1(1) Where a
Relevant Personis permitted to undertake Simplified Customer Due Diligenceunder AML Rule 7.1.1(2), modification of AML Rule 7.3.1 may include:(a) verifying the identity of the customer and any Beneficial Ownersafter the establishment of the business relationship under AML Rule 7.2.1(3);(b) deciding to reduce the frequency of, or as appropriate not undertake, customer identification updates;(c) deciding not to verify an identification document other than by requesting a copy;(d) reducing the degree of on-going monitoring of transactions, based on a reasonable monetary threshold or on the nature of the transaction; or(e) not collecting specific information or carrying out specific measures to understand the purpose and intended nature of the business relationship, but infering such purpose and nature from the type of transactions or business relationship established.(2) The modification in (1) must be proportionate to the customer's money laundering risks.
AML 7.5.1 Guidance1. AML Rule 7.5.1(1) provides examples of
Simplified CDDmeasures. Other measures may also be used by a Relevant Personto modify CDDin accordance with the customer risks.2. A Relevant Personshould not use a "one size fits all" approach for all its low risk customers. Notwithstanding that the risks may be low for all such customers, the degree of CDDundertaken needs to be proportionate to the specific risks identified on a case by case basis.3. A Relevant Personis not required to identify or verify Beneficial Ownersfor retail investment funds which are widely held and for investment funds where the investor invests via pension contributions.4. An example of circumstances where a Relevant Personmight reasonably reduce the frequency of or, as appropriate, eliminate customer identification updates would be where the money laundering risks are low and the service provided does not offer a realistic opportunity for money laundering.5. An example of where a Relevant Personmight reasonably reduce the degree of on-going monitoring and scrutinising of transactions, based on a reasonable monetary threshold or on the nature of the transaction, would be where the transaction is a recurring, fixed contribution to a savings scheme, investment portfolio or fund or where the monetary value of the transaction is not material for money laundering purposes given the nature of the customer and the transaction type.
6. For the avoidance of doubt, a
Relevant Personshould not conduct Simplified CDDwhere there is any suspicion of money laundering.
AML 7.6 AML 7.6 Ongoing Customer Due Diligence
AML 7.6.1 AML 7.6.1
(1) When undertaking ongoing
Customer Due Diligenceunder Rule 7.3.1(1)(d), a Relevant Personmust, using the risk-based approach:(a) monitor transactions undertaken during the course of its customer relationship to ensure that the transactions are consistent with the Relevant Person'sknowledge of the customer, his business and risk rating;(b) pay particular attention to any complex or unusually large transactions or unusual patterns of transactions that have no apparent or visible economic or legitimate purpose;(c) enquire into the background and purpose of the transactions in (b);(d) review the adequacy of the Customer Due Diligenceinformation it holds on customers and Beneficial Ownersto ensure that the information is kept up to date, particularly for customers with a high risk rating; and(e) review each customer to ensure that the risk rating assigned to a customer under Rule 6.1.1(1)(b) remains appropriate for the customer in light of the money laundering risks.
Relevant Personmust carry out a review under (1)(d) and (e) periodically and at other appropriate times when a material change or event occurs relating to a customer.
AML 7.6.1 Guidance1. In complying with Rule 7.6.1(1)(d), a
Relevant Personshould undertake a periodic review to ensure that non-static customer identity documentation is accurate and up-to-date. Examples of non-static identity documentation include passport number and residential/business address and, for a legal person, its share register or list of partners.2. A Relevant Personshould undertake a review under Rule 7.6.1(1)(d) and (e), both periodically and at other appropriate times such as when:a. the Relevant Personchanges its CDDdocumentation requirements;b. an unusual transaction with the customer is expected to take place;c. there is a material change in the business relationship with the customer; ord. there is a material change in the nature or ownership of the customer.3. The degree of the on-going due diligence to be undertaken will depend on the customer risk assessment carried out under Rule 188.8.131.52. A Relevant Person'stransaction monitoring policies, procedures, systems and controls, which may be implemented by manual or automated systems, or a combination thereof, are one of the most important aspects of effective CDD. Whether a Relevant Personshould undertake the monitoring by means of a manual or computerised system (or both) will depend on a number of factors, including:a. the size and nature of the Relevant Person'sbusiness and customer base; andb. the complexity and volume of customer transactions.
AML 7.6.2 AML 7.6.2 Ongoing sanctions screening
Relevant Personmust review its customers, their business and transactions against United Nations Security Council sanctions lists and against any other relevant sanctions list when complying with Rule 7.6.1(1)(d).
AML 7.6.2 Guidance
In AMLRule 7.6.2, a "relevant sanctions list" may include U.A.E EU, U.K. HM Treasury, U.S. OFAC lists and any other list which may apply to a
AML 7.7 AML 7.7 Failure to conduct or complete customer due diligence
AML 7.7.1 AML 7.7.1(1) Where, in relation to any customer, a
Relevant Personis unable to conduct or complete the requisite Customer Due Diligencein accordance with AML Rule 7.1.1 it must, to the extent relevant:(a) not carry out a transaction with or for the customer through a bank account or in cash;(b) not open an account or otherwise provide a service;(c) not otherwise establish a business relationship or carry out a transaction;(d) terminate or suspend any existing business relationship with the customer;(e) return any monies or assets received from the customer; and(f) consider whether the inability to conduct or complete Customer Due Diligencenecessitates the making of a Suspicious Activity Report under AML Rule 13.3.1(c).(2) A Relevant Personis not obliged to comply with (1) (a) to (e) if:(a) to do so would amount to "tipping off" the customer, in breach of Federal AML legislation; or(b) the FIU directs the Relevant Personto act otherwise.
AML 7.7.1 Guidance1. In complying with Rule 7.7.1(1) a
Relevant Personshould apply one or more of the measures in (a) to (f) as appropriate in the circumstances. Where CDDcannot be completed, it may be appropriate not to carry out a transaction pending completion of CDD. Where CDDcannot be conducted, including where a material part of the CDD, such as identifying and verifying a Beneficial Ownercannot be conducted, a Relevant Personshould not establish a business relationship with the customer.2. A Relevant Personshould note that Rule 7.7.1 applies to both existing and prospective customers. For new customers it may be appropriate for a Relevant Personto terminate the business relationship before a product or service is provided. However, for existing customers, while termination of the business relationship should not be ruled out, suspension may be more appropriate depending on the circumstances. Whichever route is taken, the Relevant Personshould be careful not to tip off the customer.3. A Relevant Personshould adopt the RBA for CDDof existing customers. For example, if a Relevant Personconsiders that any of its existing customers (which may include customers which it migrates into the DIFC) have not been subject to CDDat an equivalent standard to that required by this module, it should adopt the RBA and take remedial action in a manner proportionate to the risks and within a reasonable period of time whilst complying with Rule 7.7.1.
AML 8 AML 8 Reliance and OutsourcingDerived from RM117/2013 [VER9/07-13]
AML 8.1 AML 8.1 Reliance on a third party
AML 8.1.1 AML 8.1.1(1) A
Relevant Personmay rely on the following third parties to conduct one or more elements of Customer Due Diligenceon its behalf:(a) an Authorised Person;(b) a law firm, notary, or other independent legal business, accounting firm, audit firm or insolvency practitioner or an equivalent person in another jurisdiction;(c) a Financial Institution; or(d) a member of the Relevant Person'sGroup.(2) In (1), a Relevant Personmay rely on the information previously obtained by a third party which covers one or more elements of Customer Due Diligence.(3) Where a Relevant Personseeks to rely on a person in (1) it may only do so if and to the extent that:(a) it immediately obtains the necessary Customer Due Diligenceinformation from the third party in (1);(b) it takes adequate steps to satisfy itself that certified copies of the documents used to undertake the relevant elements of Customer Due Diligencewill be available from the third party on request without delay;(c) if a person in (1)(b) to (d) is in another country, the person is:(i) subject to requirements in relation to customer due diligence and record keeping which meet the standards set out in the FATFRecommendations; and(ii) supervised for compliance with those requirements in a manner that meets the standards for regulation and supervision set out in the FATFRecommendations;(d) the person in (1) has not relied on any exception from the requirement to conduct any relevant elements of Customer Due Diligencewhich the Relevant Personseeks to rely on; and(e) in relation to (2), the information is up to date.(4) Where a Relevant Personrelies on a member of its Group, such Groupmember need not meet the condition in (3)(c) if:(a) the Groupapplies and implements a Group-wide policy on customer due diligence, record keeping, Politically Exposed Personsand AMLprogrammes which meets the standards set out in the FATFRecommendations; and(b) where the effective implementation of those Customer Due Diligence, record keeping and PEPrequirements and AMLprogrammes are supervised at Grouplevel by a Financial Services Regulatoror other competent authority in a country, the supervision and regulation meets the standards set out in the FATFRecommendations.(5) If a Relevant Personis not reasonably satisfied that a customer or Beneficial Ownerhas been identified and verified by a third party in a manner consistent with these Rules, the Relevant Personmust immediately perform the Customer Due Diligenceitself with respect to any deficiencies identified.(6) Notwithstanding the Relevant Person'sreliance on a person in (1), the Relevant Personremains responsible for compliance with, and liable for any failure to meet the Customer Due Diligencerequirements in this module.
AML 8.1.1 Guidance1. In complying with AML Rule 8.1.1(3)(a), "immediately obtaining the necessary
CDDinformation" means obtaining all relevant CDDinformation, and not just basic information such as name and address. Compliance can be achieved by having that relevant information sent by email or other appropriate means. For the avoidance of doubt, a Relevant Personis not required automatically to obtain the underlying certified documents used by the third party to undertake its CDD. A Relevant Personmust, however, under AML Rule 8.1.1(3)(b) ensure that the certified documents are readily available from the third party on request.2. The DFSAwould expect a Relevant Person, in complying with AML Rule 8.1.1(5), to fill any gaps in the CDDprocess as soon as it becomes aware that a customer or Beneficial Ownerhas not been identified and verified in a manner consistent with these Rules.3. If a Relevant Personacquires another business, either in whole or in part, the DFSAwould permit the Relevant Personto rely on the CDDconducted by the business it is acquiring but would expect the Relevant Personto have done the following:a. as part of its due diligence for the acquisition, to have taken a reasonable sample of the prospective customers to assess the quality of the CDDundertaken; andb. to undertake CDDon all the customers to cover any deficiencies identified in a. as soon as possible following the acquisition, prioritising high risk customers.4. Where a particular jurisdiction's laws (such as secrecy or data protection legislation) would prevent a Relevant Personfrom having access to CDDinformation upon request without delay as referred to in AML Rule 8.1.1(3)(b), the Relevant Personshould undertake the relevant CDDitself and should not seek to rely on the relevant third party.5. If a Relevant Personrelies on a third party located in a foreign jurisdiction to conduct one or more elements of CDD on its behalf, the Relevant Personmust ensure that the foreign jurisdiction has AML regulations that are equivalent to the standards in the FATFRecommendations (see AML Rule 8.1.1(3)(c) and AML Rule 8.1.2).
(1) When assessing under AML Rule 8.1.1(3)(c) or (4) if requirements, supervision or regulation in another jurisdiction meet
FATFstandards, a Relevant Personmust take into account factors including, among other things:(a) mutual evaluations, assessment reports or follow-up reports published by FATF, the IMF, the World Bank, the OECDor other International Organisations;(b) membership of FATFor other international or regional groups such as the MENAFATFor the Gulf Co-operation Council;(c) contextual factors such as political stability or the level of corruption in the jurisdiction;(d) evidence of recent criticism of the jurisdiction, including in:(i) FATFadvisory notices;(ii) public assessments of the jurisdiction's AMLregime by organisations referred to in (a); or(iii) reports by other relevant non-government organisations or specialist commercial organisations; and(e) whether adequate arrangements exist for co-operation between the AML regulator in that jurisdiction and the DFSA.
Relevant Personmaking an assessment under (1) must rely only on sources of information that are reliable and up-to-date.
Relevant Personmust keep adequate records of how it made its assessment, including the sources and materials considered.
AML 8.2 AML 8.2 Outsourcing
AML 8.2.1 AML 8.2.1
Relevant Personwhich outsources any one or more elements of its Customer Due Diligenceto a service provider (including within its Group) remains responsible for compliance with, and liable for any failure to meet, such obligations.
AML 8.2.1 Guidance1. Prior to appointing an outsourced service provider to undertake
CDD, a Relevant Personshould undertake appropriate due diligence to assure itself of the suitability of the outsourced service provider and should ensure that the outsourced service provider's obligations are clearly documented in a binding agreement.2. An Authorised Personshould be mindful of its obligations regarding outsourcing set out in GEN Rules 5.3.21 and 5.3.22.
AML 8.3 AML 8.3 Money Service Providers
AML 8.3.1(1) An Authorised Firm that Provides Money Services must:(a) maintain a complete, current and accurate register of all agents it uses to conduct its Money Services business and make the register available to the DFSA upon request;(b) include all agents referred to in (a) as part of its AML compliance programme and monitor agents’ compliance with the programme;(c) comply with all applicable AML requirements in the jurisdictions in which it operates, whether directly or through the use of agents;(d) when executing Payment Transactions, assess and consider all relevant information including information about the payer, payee and any beneficiary, as applicable, to determine whether a Suspicious Activity Report should be made; and(e) if appropriate, make a Suspicious Activity Report in any jurisdiction impacted or connected to a suspicious Payment Transaction, and make available relevant transaction information to the authorities responsible for AML compliance in the relevant jurisdiction.(2) An Authorised Firm making an assessment under (1) must rely only on sources of information that are reliable and up-to-date.(3) An Authorised Firm must keep adequate records of how it made its assessment under (1), including the sources and materials considered.
AML 9 AML 9 Correspondent Banking, Electronic Fund Transfers and Audit
AML 9.1 AML 9.1 Application
This chapter applies only to an
AML 9.2 AML 9.2 Correspondent Banking
Authorised Firmproposing to have a correspondent banking relationship with a respondent bank must:(a) undertake appropriate Customer Due Diligenceon the respondent bank;(b) as part of (a), gather sufficient information about the respondent bank to understand fully the nature of the business, including making appropriate enquiries on its management, its major business activities and the countries or jurisdictions in which it operates;(c) determine from publicly-available information the reputation of the respondent bank and the quality of supervision, including whether it has been subject to a money laundering or terrorist financing investigation or relevant regulatory action;(d) assess the respondent bank's AML controls and ascertain if they are adequate and effective in light of the FATFRecommendations;(e) ensure that prior approval of the Authorised Firm'ssenior management is obtained before entering into a new correspondent banking relationship;(f) ensure that the respective responsibilities of the parties to the correspondent banking relationship are properly documented; and(g) be satisfied that, in respect of any customers of the respondent bank who have direct access to accounts of the Authorised Firm, the respondent bank:(i) has undertaken Customer Due Diligence(including ongoing Customer Due Diligence) at least equivalent to that in Rule 7.3.1 in respect of each customer; and(ii) is able to provide the relevant Customer Due Diligenceinformation in (i) to the Authorised Firmupon request; and(h) document the basis for its satisfaction that the requirements in (a) to (g) are met.
AML 9.2.2 AML 9.2.2
Authorised Firmmust:(a) not enter into a correspondent banking relationship with a Shell Bank; and(b) take appropriate measures to ensure that it does not enter into, or continue a corresponding banking relationship with, a bank which is known to permit its accounts to be used by Shell BankS.
AML 9.2.2 Guidance
AML Rule 9.2.2 prohibits an
Authorised Firmfrom entering into a correspondent banking relationship with a Shell Bankor a bank which is known to permit its accounts to be used by Shell Banks. See the Guidance after AML Rule 6.1.7 for more information about what constitutes a Shell Bank.
AML 9.3 AML 9.3 Electronic fund transfers
(1) This section applies to an
Authorised Personwhen it sends or transmits funds by electronic means, or when it receives funds (including serial payments and cover payments) by electronic means, on the account of a payer or payee.
(2) This section does not apply to a transfer and settlement between
Financial Institutionsif the Financial Institutionsare acting on their own behalf as the payer and the payee.
In this section:(a) "batch transfer" means a transfer that consists of a number of individual fund transfers that are bundled for transmission, whether the individual fund transfers are intended ultimately for one or more payees;(b) "beneficiary institution" means the
Financial Institutionthat receives the fund transfer from the ordering institution, whether directly or through an intermediary institution, and makes the funds available to the payee;(c) "cover payment" means a fund transfer that combines a payment message sent directly by the ordering institution to the beneficiary institution with the routing of the funding instruction from the ordering institution to the beneficiary institution through one or more intermediary institutions;(d) "cross-border fund transfer" means a fund transfer where the ordering institution and the beneficiary institution are located in different countries and includes any chain of fund transfers in which at least one of the Financial Institutionsinvolved is located in a different country;(e) "customer identification number" means a number that is different from the unique transactionreference number and:(i) uniquely identifies the payer to the ordering institution; and(ii) refers to a record held by the ordering institution that contains at least one of the following: the payer's address, national identity number or date and place of birth;(f) "domestic fund transfer" means a fund transfer where the ordering institution and beneficiary institution are located in the same country and includes any chain of fund transfers that takes place entirely within a country, even if the system used to transfer the payment message is located in another country;(g) "fund transfer" means any transactioncarried out on behalf of a payer through a Financial Institutionby electronic means with a view to making an amount of funds available to a payee at a beneficiary institution, irrespective of whether the payer and the payee are the same person;(h) "intermediary institution" means the Financial Institutionin a serial payment or cover payment chain that receives and transmits a fund transfer on behalf of the ordering institution and the beneficiary institution, or another intermediary institution;(i) "ordering institution" means the Financial Institutionthat transfers the funds upon receiving the request for a fund transfer on behalf of the payer;(j) "payee" means the natural or legal personidentified by the payer as the recipient of the requested fund transfer;(k) "payer" means the account holder who allows the fund transfer from that account or, if there is no account, the natural or legal personthat places the fund transfer order with the ordering institution to perform the fund transfer;(l) "serial payment" means a direct sequential chain of payment where the fund transfer and accompanying payment message travel together from the ordering institution to the beneficiary institution, directly or through one or more intermediary institutions;(m) "straight-through processing" means payment transactionsthat are conducted electronically without the need for manual intervention; and(n) "unique transaction reference number" means a combination of letters, numbers or symbols, determined by the Financial Institutionin accordance with the protocols of the payment and settlement system or messaging system used for the fund transfer, and which permits the traceability of the fund transfer.
Requirements for ordering institution
Before effecting a fund transfer, an
Authorised Personthat is an ordering institution must:(a) identify the payer and verify the identity of the payer if the identity has not previously been identified; and(b) record adequate details of the fund transfer that are sufficient to permit its reconstruction, including but not limited to, the date of the transfer, the payer and payee, and the type and amount of currency transferred and the value date.
For a cross-border fund transfer where the amount to be transferred is $1000 or less, an
Authorised Personthat is an ordering institution must include in the message or payment instruction that accompanies or relates to the fund transfer the following:(a) the name of the payer;(b) the payer's account number (or unique transactionreference number if no account number exists);(c) the name of the payee; and(d) the payee's account number (or unique transactionreference number if no account number exists).
For a cross-border fund transfer where the amount to be transferred is more than $1,000, an
Authorised Personthat is an ordering institution must, in addition to the information required by AML Rule 9.3.4, include in the message or payment instruction that accompanies or relates to the fund transfer any one of the following:(a) the payer's address:(b) the payer's national identity number, such as an identity card number or passport number;(c) the payer's customeridentification number; or(d) the date and place of birth of the payer.
If several individual cross-border fund transfers from a single payer are bundled in a batch file for transmission, then, in complying with AML Rules 9.3.4 and 9.3.5, an
Authorised Personthat is an ordering institution must ensure that:(a) the batch file contains the payer information required under AML Rule 9.3.4 and, if applicable, AML Rule 9.3.5;(b) it has verified the payer information referred to in (a); and(c) the batch file contains the payee information required under AML Rule 9.3.4 for each payee and that information is fully traceable in the payee's country.
AML 9.3.7 AML 9.3.7
For a domestic fund transfer, an
Authorised Personthat is an ordering institution must either:(a) include in the message or payment instruction that accompanies or relates to the fund transfer the following:(i) the name of the payer;(ii) the payer's account number (or unique transaction reference number if no account number exists); and(iii) any one of the following:(A) the payer's address;(B) the payer's national identity number, such as an identity card number or passport number;(C) the payer's customer identification number; or(D) the date and place of birth of the payer; or(b) include only the payer's account number (or unique transactionreference number if no account number exists), provided that:(i) those details will permit the transactionto be traced back to the payer and payee; and(ii) the ordering institution must provide the payer information set out in paragraph (a) within 3 business days of a request for the information by the beneficiary institution or the DFSA or immediately upon request of a law enforcement agency.
Authorised Personthat is an ordering institution must retain a record of payer and payee information it has collected under this section.
Requirements for beneficiary institution
Authorised Personthat is a beneficiary institution must take reasonable measures, including post-event monitoring or real-time monitoring where feasible, to identify cross-border fund transfers that lack the required payer or payee information.
For a cross-border fund transfer, an
Authorised Personthat is a beneficiary institution must identify and verify the identity of the payee if the identity has not been previously verified.
Requirements for intermediary institution
Authorised Personthat is an intermediary institution must retain all the required payer and payee information accompanying the fund transfer.
If technical limitations prevent the required payer or payee information accompanying a cross-border fund transfer from remaining with a related domestic fund transfer, an
Authorised Personthat is a receiving intermediary institution must maintain a record, for at least five years, of all the information received from the ordering institution or another intermediary institution.
Authorised Personthat is an intermediary institution must take reasonable measures, which are consistent with straight-through processing, to identify crossborder fund transfers that lack the required payer or payee information.
Systems and controls concerning fund transfers
AML 9.3.15 AML 9.3.15
Relevant Personmust ensure that its AMLsystems and controls referred to in AML Rule 5.2.1 include risk management policies and procedures specifying the steps to be taken if a fund transfer lacks information required under this section, including when to reject or amend a transfer and any follow-up action that is to be taken.
AML 9.3.15 Guidance
DFSAconsiders that concealing or removing in a fund transfer any of the information required by this section would be a breach of the requirement to ensure that the fund transfer contains accurate payer and payee information.
AML 9.4 AML 9.4 Audit
AML 9.4.1 AML 9.4.1
Authorised Personmust ensure that its audit function, established under GEN Rule 5.3.13, includes regular reviews and assessments of the effectiveness of the Authorised Person's money laundering policies, procedures, systems and controls, and its compliance with its obligations in this AML module.
AML 9.4.1 Guidance1. The review and assessment undertaken for the purposes of Rule 9.4.1 may be undertaken:a. internally by the
Authorised Person'sinternal audit function; orb. by a competent firm of independent auditors or compliance professionals.2. The review and assessment undertaken for the purposes of Rule 9.4.1 should cover at least the following:a. sample testing of compliance with the Authorised Person's CDDarrangements;b. an analysis of all notifications made to the MLROto highlight any area where procedures or training may need to be enhanced; andc. a review of the nature and frequency of the dialogue between the senior management and the MLRO.
AML 9.5 AML 9.5 [Deleted]
AML 9.5.1 [Deleted]
AML 10 AML 10 Sanctions and Other International Obligations
AML 10.1 AML 10.1 [Deleted]
AML 10.1.1 [Deleted]
AML 10.2 AML 10.2 Relevant United Nations resolutions and sanctions
AML 10.2.1 AML 10.2.1(1) A
Relevant Personmust establish and maintain effective systems and controls to ensure that on an ongoing basis it is properly informed as to, and takes reasonable measures to comply with, relevant resolutions or sanctions issued by the United Nations Security Council.(2) A Relevant Personmust immediately notify the DFSAwhen it becomes aware that it is:(a) carrying on or about to carry on an activity;(b) holding or about to hold money or other assets; or(c) undertaking or about to undertake any other business whether or not arising from or in connection with (a) or (b);for or on behalf of a person, where such carrying on, holding or undertaking constitutes or may constitute a contravention of a relevant sanction or resolution issued by the United Nations Security Council.(3) A Relevant Personmust ensure that the notification stipulated in (2) above includes the following information:(a) a description of the relevant activity in (2) (a), (b) or (c); and(b) the action proposed to be taken or that has been taken by the Relevant Personwith regard to the matters specified in the notification.
AML 10.2.1 Guidance1. In AML Rule 10.2.1(1), taking reasonable measures to comply with a United Nations Security Council resolution or sanction may include, for example, a
Relevant Personnot undertaking a transaction for or on behalf of a person or undertaking further due diligence in respect of a person.2. Relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions or sanctions mentioned in AML Rule 10.2.1 may, among other things, relate to money laundering, terrorist financing or the financing of weapons of mass destruction or otherwise be relevant to the activities carried on by the Relevant Person. For example:a. a Relevant Personshould exercise due care to ensure that it does not provide services to, or otherwise conduct business with, a person engaged in money laundering, terrorist financing or the financing of weapons of mass destruction; andb. an Authorised Market Institutionshould exercise due care to ensure that it does not facilitate fund raising activities or listings by persons engaged in money laundering or terrorist financing or financing of weapons of mass destruction.3. A Relevant Personshould be proactive in checking for, and taking measures to comply with, relevant resolutions or sanctions issued by the United Nations Security Council. The DFSA expects Relevant Personsto perform checks on an ongoing basis against their customer databases and records for any names appearing in resolutions or sanctions issued by the United Nations Security Council as well as to monitor transactions accordingly.4. A Relevant Personmay use a database maintained elsewhere for an up-to-date list of resolutions and sanctions, or to perform checks of customers or transactions against that list. For example, it may wish to use a database maintained by its head office or a Groupmember. However, the Relevant Personretains responsibility for ensuring that its systems and controls are effective to ensure compliance with this module.5. Relevant Personsshould also be aware of their obligations under Cabinet Decision No. 20 of 2019, which include the obligation to check on a daily basis the sanctions lists issued by the United Nations Security Council.
AML 10.3 AML 10.3 Government, Regulatory and International Findings
AML 10.3.1 AML 10.3.1(1) A
Relevant Personmust establish and maintain systems and controls to ensure that on an ongoing basis it is properly informed as to, and takes reasonable measures to comply with, any findings, recommendations, guidance, directives, resolutions, sanctions, notices or other conclusions (each of which is referred to in this Rule as a "finding") issued by:(a) the government of the U.A.E.or any government departments in the U.A.E.;(b) the Central Bank of the U.A.E.or the FIU;(c) FATF;(d) U.A.E.enforcement agencies; and(e) the DFSA,concerning the matters in (2).(2) For the purposes of (1), the relevant matters are:(a) arrangements for preventing money laundering, terrorist financing or the financing of weapons of mass destruction in a particular country or jurisdiction, including any assessment of material deficiency against relevant countries in adopting international standards; and(b) the names of persons, groups, organisations or entities or any other body where suspicion of money laundering or terrorist financing or the financing of weapons of mass destruction exists.(3) For the purposes of (1), measures in a finding that a Relevant Personmust comply with include, but are not limited to, measures:(a) requiring specific elements of enhanced due diligence;(b) requiring enhanced reporting mechanisms or systematic reporting of financial transactions;(c) limiting business relationships or financial transactionswith specified persons or persons in a specified jurisdiction;(d) prohibiting Relevant Personsfrom relying on third parties located in a specified jurisdiction to conduct customer due diligence;(e) requiring correspondent relationships with banks in a specified jurisdiction to be reviewed, amended or, if necessary, terminated;(f) prohibiting the execution of specified electronic fund transfers; or(g) requiring increased external audit requirements for financial groups with respect to branches and subsidiaries located in a specified jurisdiction.(4) A Relevant Personmust immediately notify the DFSA in writing if it becomes aware of non-compliance by a person with a finding and provide the DFSA with sufficient details of the person concerned and the nature of the non-compliance.
AML 10.3.1 Guidance1. The purpose of this Rule is to ensure that a
Relevant Persontakes into consideration the broad range of tools used by competent authorities and international organisations to communicate AML/CTF risks to stakeholders.2. The Rule also permits the DFSAto require enhanced due diligence or other specific countermeasures to address risks identified in a specific country or jurisdiction. The DFSAmay impose such countermeasures either when called upon to do so by FATFor independently of any FATFrequest.3. Relevant Personsconsidering transactions or business relationships with persons located in countries or jurisdictions that have been identified as deficient, or against which the U.A.E.or the DFSAhave outstanding advisories, should be aware of the background against which the assessments, or the specific recommendations have been made. These circumstances should be taken into account in respect of introduced business from such jurisdictions, and when receiving inward payments for existing customers or in respect of inter-bank transactions.4. The Relevant Person's MLROis not obliged to report all transactions from these countries or jurisdictions to the FIU if they do not qualify as suspicious under the Federal AML legislation. See AML chapter 13 on Suspicious Activity Reports.5. Transactions with counterparties located in countries or jurisdictions which are no longer identified as deficient or have been relieved from special scrutiny (for example, taken off sources mentioned in this Guidance) may nevertheless require attention which is higher than normal.6. In order to assist Relevant Persons, the DFSAwill, from time to time, publish U.A.E., FATFor other findings, guidance, directives or sanctions. However, the DFSAexpects a Relevant Personto take its own steps in acquiring relevant information from various available sources. For example, a Relevant Personmay obtain relevant information from the consolidated list of financial sanctions in the U.A.E Cabinet, European Union Office, HM Treasury (United Kingdom) lists, and the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the United States Department of Treasury.7. In addition, the systems and controls mentioned in AML Rule 10.3.1 should be established and maintained by a Relevant Persontaking into account its risk assessment under chapters 5 and 6. In AML Rule 10.3.1, taking reasonable measures to comply with a finding may mean that a Relevant Personcannot undertake a transaction for or on behalf of a person or that it may need to undertake further due diligence in respect of such a person.8. A Relevant Personshould be proactive in obtaining and appropriately using available national and international information, for example, suspect lists or databases from credible public or private sources with regard to money laundering, including obtaining relevant information from sources mentioned in Guidance 6 above. The DFSAencourages Relevant Personsto perform checks against their customer databases and records for any names appearing on such lists and databases as well as to monitor transactions accordingly. As set out in the Guidance after Rule 10.2.1, a Relevant Personmay use a database maintained elsewhere for an up-todate list of sanctions or to conduct checks of customers or transactions against the list. However, it retains responsibility for ensuring the effectiveness of its systems and controls.9. The risk of terrorists entering the financial system can be reduced if Relevant Personsapply effective AML strategies, particularly in respect of CDD. Relevant Personsshould assess which countries carry the highest risks and should conduct an analysis of transactions from countries or jurisdictions known to be a source of terrorist financing.10. The DFSAmay require Relevant Personsto take any special measures it may prescribe with respect to certain types of transactions or accounts where the DFSAreasonably believes that any of the above may pose a money laundering risk to the DIFC.
AML 11 AML 11 Money Laundering Reporting Officer
AML 11.1 AML 11.1 [Deleted]
AML 11.1.1 [Deleted]
AML 11.2 AML 11.2 Appointment of a MLRO
AML 11.2.1(1) A
Relevant Personmust appoint an individual as MLRO, with responsibility for implementation and oversight of its compliance with the Rules in this module, who is suitable to perform the role and has an appropriate level of seniority and independence to act in the role.(2) The MLROin (1) and AML Rule 11.2.5 must be resident in the U.A.E, except in the case of the MLRO for a Registered Auditor.
AML 11.2.2 AML 11.2.2
The individual appointed as the
MLROof a Representative Officemust be the same individual who holds the position of Principal Representativeof that Representative Office.
AML 11.2.2 Guidance1.
Authorised Firmsare reminded that under GEN Rule 7.5.1, the MLROfunction is a mandatory appointment. For the avoidance of doubt, the individual appointed as the MLROof an Authorised Firm, other than a Representative Office, is the same individual who holds the Licensed Functionof M oney Laundering Reporting Officerof that Authorised Firm. Authorised Firmsare also reminded that the guidance under GEN Rule 7.5.2 sets out the grounds under which the DFSAwill determine whether to grant a waiver from the residence requirements for an MLRO. The same guidance would apply by analogy to other Relevant Personsseeking a waiver from the MLROresidence requirements.2. The individual appointed as the MLROof an Authorised Market Institutionis the same individual who holds the position of Money Laundering Reporting Officerof that Authorised Market Institutionunder the relevant AMIRule.
Authorised Firm, other than a Representative Office, must appoint an individual to act as a deputy MLROof the Authorised Firmto fulfil the role of the MLROin his absence.
AML 11.2.4 AML 11.2.4
Relevant Person's MLROmust deal with the DFSAin an open and co-operative manner and must disclose appropriately any information of which the DFSA would reasonably be expected to be notified.
AML 11.2.4 Guidance1. The individual appointed as the deputy
MLROof an Authorised Firmneed not apply for Authorised Individualstatus for performing the Licensed Functionof Money Laundering Reporting Officer, subject to Rules in GEN section 11.6.2. A Relevant Personother than an Authorised Firmshould make adequate arrangements to ensure that it remains in compliance with this module in the event that its MLROis absent. Adequate arrangementswould include appointing a temporary MLROfor the period of the MLRO'sabsence or making sure that the Relevant Person'sAML systems and controls allow it to continue to comply with these Rules when the MLROis absent.Derived from RM117/2013 [VER9/07-13]
AML 11.2.5 AML 11.2.5
Relevant Personmay outsource the role of MLROto an individual outside the Relevant Personprovided that the relevant individual under the outsourcing agreement is and remains suitable to perform the MLROrole.
AML 11.2.5 Guidance
Relevant Personoutsources specific AML tasks of its MLROto another individual or a third party provider, including within a corporate Group, the Relevant Personremains responsible for ensuring compliance with the responsibilities of the MLRO. The Relevant Personshould satisfy itself of the suitability of anyone who acts for it.
AML 11.3 AML 11.3 Qualities of a MLRO
AML 11.3.1 AML 11.3.1
Relevant Personmust ensure that its MLROhas:(a) direct access to its senior management;(b) sufficient resources including, if necessary, an appropriate number of appropriately trained Employeesto assist in the performance of his duties in an effective, objective and independent manner;(c) a level of seniority and independence within the Relevant Personto enable him to act on his own authority; and(d) timely and unrestricted access to information sufficient to enable him to carry out his responsibilities in Rule 11.4.1.
AML 11.3.1 Guidance
DFSAconsiders that a Relevant Personwill need to consider this Rule when appointing an outsourced MLRO. Any external MLROthat is appointed will need to have the actual or effective level of seniority that the role requires.
AML 11.4 AML 11.4 Responsibilities of a MLRO
Relevant Personmust ensure that its MLROimplements and has oversight of and is responsible for the following matters:(a) the day-to-day operations for compliance by the Relevant Personwith its AML policies, procedures, systems and controls;(b) acting as the point of contact to receive notifications from the Relevant Person's Employeesunder AML Rule 13.2.2;(c) taking appropriate action under AML Rule 13.3.1 following the receipt of a notification from an Employee;(d) making Suspicious Activity Reportsin accordance with Federal AML legislation;(e) acting as the point of contact within the Relevant Personfor competent U.A.E.authorities and the DFSAregarding money laundering issues;(f) responding promptly to any request for information made by competent U.A.E.authorities or the DFSA;(g) receiving and acting upon any relevant findings, recommendations, guidance, directives, resolutions, sanctions, notices or other conclusions described in chapter 10; and(h) establishing and maintaining an appropriate money laundering training programme and adequate awareness arrangements under chapter 12.
AML 12 AML 12 AML Training and Awareness
AML 12.1 AML 12.1 Training and awareness
AML 12.1.1 AML 12.1.1
Relevant Personmust(a) provide AML training to all relevant Employeesat appropriate and regular intervals;(b) ensure that its AML training enables its Employeesto:(i) understand the relevant legislation relating to money laundering, including Federal AML legislation;(ii) understand its policies, procedures, systems and controls related to money laundering and any changes to these;(iii) recognise and deal with transactions and other activities which may be related to money laundering;(iv) understand the types of activity that may constitute suspicious activity in the context of the business in which an Employeeis engaged and that may warrant a notification to the MLROunder AML Rule 13.2.2;(v) understand its arrangements regarding the making of a notification to the MLROunder AML Rule 13.2.2;(vi) be aware of the prevailing techniques, methods and trends in money laundering relevant to the business of the Relevant Person;(vii) understand the roles and responsibilities of Employeesin combating money laundering, including the identity and responsibility of the Relevant Person's MLROand deputy, where applicable; and(viii) understand the relevant findings, recommendations, guidance, directives, resolutions, sanctions, notices or other conclusions described in chapter 10; and(c) ensure that its AML training:(i) is appropriately tailored to the Relevant Person'sactivities, including its products, services, customers, distribution channels, business partners, level and complexity of its transactions; and(ii) indicates the different levels of money laundering risk and vulnerabilities associated with the matters in (c)(i).
AML 12.1.1 Guidance1. The
DFSAconsiders it appropriate that all new relevant Employees of a Relevant Personbe given appropriate AML training as soon as reasonably practicable after commencing employment with the Relevant Person.2. Relevant Personsshould take a risk-based approach to AML training. The DFSAconsiders that AML training should be provided by a Relevant Personto each of its relevant Employeesat intervals appropriate to the role and responsibilities of the Employee. In the case of an Authorised Firmthe DFSAexpects that training should be provided to each relevant Employeeat least annually.3. The manner in which AML training is provided by a Relevant Personneed not be in a formal classroom setting, rather it may be via an online course or any other similarly appropriate manner.4. A relevant Employeewould include a member of the senior management or operational staff, any Employeewith customer contact or which handles or may handle customer monies or assets, and any other Employeewho might otherwise encounter money laundering in the business.
AML 13 AML 13 Suspicious Activity Reports
AML 13.1 AML 13.1 Application and Definitions
AML 13.1.1 [Deleted]
In this chapter, "money laundering" and "terrorist financing" mean the criminal offences defined in the Federal AML legislation.
AML 13.2 AML 13.2 Internal Reporting Requirements
Relevant Personmust establish and maintain policies, procedures, systems and controls in order to monitor and detect suspicious activity or transactions in relation to potential money laundering or terrorist financing.
AML 13.2.2 AML 13.2.2
Relevant Personmust have policies, procedures, systems and controls to ensure that whenever any Employee, acting in the ordinary course of his employment, either:(a) knows;(b) suspects; or(c) has reasonable grounds for knowing or suspecting;
that a person is engaged in or attempting money laundering or terrorist financing, that
Employeepromptly notifies the Relevant Person's MLROand provides the MLROwith all relevant details.
AML 13.2.2 Guidance1. Circumstances that might give rise to suspicion or reasonable grounds for suspicion include:a. Transactions which have no apparent purpose, which make no obvious economic sense, or which are designed or structured to avoid detection;b. Transactions requested by a person without reasonable explanation, which are out of the ordinary range of services normally requested or are outside the experience of a
Relevant Personin relation to a particular customer;c. where the size or pattern of transactions, without reasonable explanation, is out of line with any pattern that has previously emerged or are deliberately structured to avoid detection;d. where a customer refuses to provide the information requested without reasonable explanation;e. where a customer who has just entered into a business relationship uses the relationship for a single transaction or for only a very short period of time;f. an extensive use of offshore accounts, companies or structures in circumstances where the customer's economic needs do not support such requirements;g. unnecessary routing of funds through third party accounts; orh. unusual transactions without an apparently profitable motive.2. The requirement for Employeesto notify the Relevant Person's MLROshould include situations when no business relationship was developed because the circumstances were suspicious.3. A Relevant Personmay allow its Employeesto consult with their line managers before sending a report to the MLRO. The DFSAwould expect that such consultation does not prevent making a report whenever an Employeehas stated that he has knowledge, suspicion or reasonable grounds for knowing or suspecting that a person may be involved in money laundering. Whether or not an Employeeconsults with his line manager or other Employees, the responsibility remains with the Employeeto decide for himself whether a notification to the MLROshould be made.4. An Employee, including the MLRO, who considers that a person is engaged in or engaging in activity that he knows or suspects to be suspicious would not be expected to know the exact nature of the criminal offence or that the particular funds were definitely those arising from the crime of money laundering or terrorist financing.5. CDDmeasures form the basis for recognising suspicious activity. Sufficient guidance must therefore be given to the Relevant Person's Employeesto enable them to form a suspicion or to recognise when they have reasonable grounds to suspect that money laundering or terrorist financing is taking place. This should involve training that will enable relevant Employeesto seek and assess the information that is required for them to judge whether a person is involved in suspicious activity related to money laundering or terrorist financing.6. A transaction that appears unusual is not necessarily suspicious. Even customers with a stable and predictable transaction profile will have periodic transactions that are unusual for them. Many customers will, for perfectly good reasons, have an erratic pattern of transactions or account activity. So the unusual is, in the first instance, only a basis for further inquiry, which may in turn require judgement as to whether it is suspicious. A transaction or activity may not be suspicious at the time, but if suspicions are raised later, an obligation to report then arises.7. Effective CDDmeasures may provide the basis for recognising unusual and suspicious activity. Where there is a customer relationship, suspicious activity will often be one that is inconsistent with a customer's known legitimate activity, or with the normal business activities for that type of account or customer. Therefore, the key to recognising 'suspicious activity' is knowing enough about the customer and the customer's normal expected activities to recognise when their activity is abnormal.8. A Relevant Personmay consider implementing policies and procedures whereby disciplinary action is taken against an Employeewho fails to notify the Relevant Person's MLRO.Derived from RM117/2013 [VER9/07-13]
[Amended] RM196/2016 (Made 7th December 2016). [VER13/02-17]
AML 13.3 AML 13.3 Suspicious Activity Report
Relevant Personmust ensure that where the Relevant Person's MLROreceives a notification under AML Rule 13.2.2, the MLRO, without delay:(a) inquires into and documents the circumstances in relation to which the notification made under AML Rule 13.2.2 was made;(b) determines whether in accordance with Federal AML legislation a Suspicious Activity Report must be made to the FIU and documents such determination;(c) if required, makes a Suspicious Activity Report to the FIU as soon as practicable; and(d) notifies the DFSAof the making of such Suspicious Activity Report immediately following its submission to the FIU.
Where, following a notification to the
MLROunder 13.2.2, no Suspicious Activity Report is made, a Relevant Personmust record the reasons for not making a Suspicious Activity Report.
AML 13.3.3 AML 13.3.3
Relevant Personmust ensure that if the MLROdecides to make a Suspicious Activity Report, his decision is made independently and is not subject to the consent or approval of any other person.
AML 13.3.3 Guidance1.
Relevant Personsare reminded that the failure to report suspicions of money laundering or terrorist financing may constitute a criminal offence that is punishable under the laws of the State.2. SARs under Federal AML legislation should be sent to the FIU via the FIU's electronic system or by other means approved by the FIU.3. In the preparation of a SAR, if a Relevant Personknows or assumes that the funds which form the subject of the report do not belong to a customer but to a third party, this fact and the details of the Relevant Person'sproposed course of further action in relation to the case should be included in the report.4. If a Relevant Personhas reported a suspicion to the FIU, it must in accordance with the Federal AML legislation provide any additional information requested by the FIU. The FIU may instruct the Relevant Personon how to continue its business relationship, including effecting any transaction with a person. If the customer in question expresses his wish to move the funds before the Relevant Personreceives instruction from the FIU on how to proceed, the Relevant Personshould immediately contact the FIU for further instructions.
AML 13.3.4 [Deleted]
AML 13.4 AML 13.4 Tipping-off
AML 13.4 Guidance1.
Relevant Personsare reminded that in accordance with Federal AML legisaltion, Relevant Personsor any of their Employeesmust not disclose, directly or indirectly, to the Customeror to any other person that they have reported, or are intending to report, a suspicious transaction. They also must not disclose information contained in an SAR or the fact that a suspicious transaction is being investigated.2. If a Relevant Personreasonably believes that performing CDDmeasures will tip-off a customer or potential customer, it may choose not to pursue that process and should file a SAR. Relevant Personsshould ensure that their Employeesare aware of and sensitive to these issues when considering the CDDmeasures.
AML 13.5 AML 13.5 Freezing assets
AML 13.5 Guidance
The DFSA has power under the
Regulatory Lawto restrict an Authorised Personfrom disposing of or transferring property including, for example, assets or other funds suspected of relating to money laundering. It may also apply to the Courtfor an order restraining a person from transferring or disposing of any assets suspected of relating to money laundering. In cases involving suspected money laundering, the DFSA will usually take such action in co-ordination with the FIU.
AML 14 AML 14 General
AML 14.1 AML 14.1 Groups, branches and subsidiaries
AML 14.1.1 AML 14.1.1(1) A
Relevant Personwhich is a DIFCentity must ensure that its policies, procedures, systems and controls required by Rule 5.2.1 apply to:(a) any of its branches or Subsidiaries; and(b) any of its Groupentities in the DIFC.(2) Where the anti-money laundering requirements in another jurisdiction differ from those in the DIFC, the Relevant Personmust require its branchor Subsidiaryin that jurisdiction to apply the higher of the two standards, to the extent permitted by the law of that jurisdiction.(3) Where the law of another jurisdiction does not permit the implementation of policies, procedures, systems and controls that are equivalent to or higher than those that apply to the Relevant Personin the DIFC, the Relevant Personmust:(a) inform the DFSAin writing; and(b) apply appropriate additional measures to manage the money laundering risks posed by the relevant branch or Subsidiary.
AML 14.1.1 Guidance
Relevant Personwhich is a DIFCentity should conduct a periodic review to verify that any branch or Subsidiaryoperating in another jurisdiction is in compliance with the obligations imposed under these Rules.
AML 14.1.2 AML 14.1.2
Relevant Personmust:(a) communicate the policies and procedures which it establishes and maintains in accordance with these Rules to its Groupentities, branches and Subsidiaries; and(b) document the basis for its satisfaction that the requirement in Rule 14.1.1(2) is met.
AML 14.1.2 Guidance
In relation to an
Authorised Firm, if the DFSAis not satisfied in respect of AML compliance of its branches and Subsidiariesin a particular jurisdiction, it may take action, including making it a condition on the Authorised Firm's Licencethat it must not operate a branch or Subsidiaryin that jurisdiction.
AML 14.2 AML 14.2 Group policies
Relevant Personwhich is part of a Groupmust ensure that it:(a) has developed and implemented policies and procedures for the sharing of information between Groupentities, including the sharing of information relating to Customer Due Diligenceand money laundering risks;(b) has in place adequate safeguards on the confidentiality and use of information exchanged between Group entities, including consideration of relevant data protection legislation;(c) remains aware of the money laundering risks of the Groupas a whole and of its exposure to the Groupand takes active steps to mitigate such risks;(d) contributes to a Group-wide risk assessment to identify and assess money laundering risks for the Group; and(e) provides its Group-wide compliance, audit and AML functions with customer account and transaction information from branches and subsidiaries when necessary for AML purposes.
AML 14.3 AML 14.3 Notifications
Relevant Personmust inform the DFSAin writing as soon as possible if, in relation to its activities carried on in or from the DIFCor in relation to any of its branches or Subsidiaries, it:(a) receives a request for information from a regulator or agency responsible for AML, counter-terrorism financing, or sanctions regarding enquiries into potential money laundering or terrorist financing or sanctions breaches;(b) becomes aware, or has reasonable grounds to believe, that a money laundering event has occurred or may have occurred in or through its business;(c) becomes aware of any money laundering or sanctions matter in relation to the Relevant Personor a member of its Groupwhich could result in adverse reputational consequences to the Relevant Person; or(d) becomes aware of a significant breach of a Rule in this module or a breach of Federal AML legislation by the Relevant Personor any of its Employees.
AML 14.4 AML 14.4 Record keeping
Relevant Personmust maintain the following records:(a) a copy of all documents and information obtained in undertaking initial and ongoing Customer Due Diligence;(b) records (consisting of the original documents or certified copies) in respect of the customer business relationship, including:(i) business correspondence and other information relating to a customer's account;(ii) sufficient records of transactions to enable individual transactions to be reconstructed; and(iii) internal findings and analysis relating to a transaction or any business, such as if the transactionor business is unusual or suspicious, whether or not it results in a Suspicious Activity Report;(c) notifications made under AML Rule 13.2.2};(d) Suspicious Activity Reports and any relevant supporting documents and information, including internal findings and analysis;(e) any relevant communications with the FIU;(f) the documents in AML Rule 14.4.2; and(g) any other matter that the Relevant Personis expressly required to record under these Rules,
for at least six years from the date on which the notification or report was made, the business relationship ends or the transaction is completed, whichever occurs last.
Relevant Personmust provide to the DFSAor a law enforcement agency immediately on request a copy of a record referred to in AML Rule 14.4.1.
AML 14.4.2 AML 14.4.2
A Relevant Person must document, and provide to the
DFSAimmediately on request, any of the following:(a) the risk assessment of its business undertaken under Rule 5.1.1;(b) how the assessment in (a) was used for the purposes of complying with Rule 6.1.1(1);(c) the risk assessment of the customer undertaken under Rule 6.1.1(1)(a); and(d) the determination made under Rule 6.1.1(1)(b).
AML 14.4.2 Guidance1. The records required to be kept under AML Rule 14.4.1 may be kept in electronic format, provided that such records are readily accessible and available to respond promptly to any
DFSArequests for information. Authorised Personsare reminded of their obligations in GEN Rule 184.108.40.206. If the date on which the business relationship with a customer has ended remains unclear, it may be taken to have ended on the date of the completion of the last transaction.3. The records maintained by a Relevant Personshould be kept in such a manner that:a. the DFSAor another competent authority is able to assess the R elevant Person'scompliance with legislation applicable in the DIFC;b. any transaction which was processed by or through the Relevant Personon behalf of a customer or other third party can be reconstructed;c. any customer or third party can be identified; andd. the Relevant Personcan satisfy without delay any regulatory enquiry or court order to disclose information.4. The DFSAwould ordinarily expect a Relevant Person to be able to provide a copy of a record or assessment referred to in AML Rule 14.4.1 or AML Rule 14.4.2 within 24 hours of a request by the DFSA. However, if a request is complex or if records are kept outside the DIFCas set out in AML Rule 14.4.3, the DFSAmay allow further time to comply with the request.
Where the records referred to in Rule 14.4.1 are kept by the
Relevant Personoutside the DIFC, a Relevant Personmust:(a) take reasonable steps to ensure that the records are held in a manner consistent with these Rules;(b) ensure that the records are easily accessible to the Relevant Person; and(c) upon request by the DFSA, ensure that the records are immediately available for inspection.
Relevant Personmust:(a) verify if there is secrecy or data protection legislation that would restrict access without delay to the records referred to in Rule 14.4.1 by the Relevant Person, the DFSAor the law enforcement agencies of the U.A.E.; and(b) where such legislation exists, obtain without delay certified copies of the relevant records and keep such copies in a jurisdiction which allows access by those persons in (a).
AML 14.4.5 AML 14.4.5
A Relevant Person must be able to demonstrate that it has complied with the training and awareness requirements in chapter 12 through appropriate measures, including the maintenance of relevant training records.
AML 14.4.5 Guidance1. In complying with Rule 14.4.3,
Authorised Personsare reminded of their obligations in GEN Rule 220.127.116.11. The DFSAconsiders that "appropriate measures" in Rule 14.4.5 may include the maintenance of a training log setting out details of:a. the dates when the training was given;b. the nature of the training; andc. the names of Employeeswho received the training.
AML 14.5 AML 14.5 Annual AML Return
AML 14.5.1 AML 14.5.1
Relevant Personmust complete the AML Return form in AFNand submit it to the DFSAby the end of September each year. The annual AML Return must cover the period from 1 August of the previous year to 31 July of the reporting year.
AML 14.5.1 Guidance
Relevant Personsshould be aware of their obligation under Cabinet Decision No. 10 of 2019 to prepare and submit semi-annual reports to their senior management, and to send a copy of those reports, with senior management remarks and decisions, to the relevant Supervisory Authority.
AML 14.5.2 AML 14.5.2
Relevant Personmust:(a) for its financial year ending in 2016, complete and submit the AML Return form under AML Rule 14.5.1 within four months of its financial year end and the return must cover that financial year; and(b) for the 2017 calendar year, complete and submit the AML Return form by the end of September 2017 and the return must cover the period from 1 August 2016 until 31 July 2017.Derived from DFSA RM177/2016 (Made 19th June 2016) [VER12/08-16]
AML 14.5.2 Guidance
In respect of a financial year ending in 2016, a
Relevant Personmust submit its AML Return four months after its financial year end. For the 2017 calendar year, it must report for the period 1 August 2016 to 31 July 2017. For some Relevant Persons, this may result in an overlap of periods covered by each return.Derived from DFSA RM177/2016 (Made 19th June 2016) [VER12/08-16]
AML 14.6 AML 14.6 Communication with the DFSA
Relevant Personmust:(a) be open and cooperative in all its dealings with the DFSA; and(b) ensure that any communication with the DFSAis conducted in the English language.
AML 14.7 AML 14.7 Employee Disclosures
AML 14.7.1 AML 14.7.1
Relevant Personmust ensure that it does not prejudice an Employeewho discloses any information regarding money laundering to the DFSAor to any other relevant body involved in the prevention of money laundering.
AML 14.7.1 Guidance
DFSAconsiders that "relevant body" in Rule 14.7.1 would include the FIU or another financial intelligence unit, the police, or a Dubai or Federal ministry.
AML 14.8 AML 14.8 Decision making procedures
AML 14.8.1 AML 14.8.1
The procedures in Schedule 3 to the Regulatory Law apply to a decision of the DFSA to impose an administrative penalty under Article 14(1) of Federal Law No. 20 of 2018.
AML 14.8.2 AML 14.8.2
If the DFSA decides to exercise its power under Article 14(1) of Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 in relation to a person, the person may refer the matter to the FMT for review.
AML 14.8.2 Guidance
The Rules in this section apply where the DFSA makes a decision to impose an administrative penalty under Federal Law No. 20 of 2018. The administrative penalties referred to in that Article include fines, bans from working in a sector, suspension or restriction of activities and other measures. The DFSA may also impose sanctions under DIFC laws, for example, under Article 90 of the Regulatory Law, in which case, the relevant provision will specify the procedures that apply.
AML 15 AML 15 DNFBP Registration and Supervision
AML 15 Guidance1. A
DNFBPshould ensure that it complies with and has regard to relevant provisions of the Regulatory Law. The Regulatory Law gives the DFSAa power to supervise DNFBPs'compliance with relevant AML laws in the State. The Regulatory Lawrequires a DNFBPto be registered by the DFSAto conduct its activities in the DIFC. AML Rule 15.1.2 sets out the criteria a DNFBPmust meet to be registered. The Regulatory Law also gives the DFSAa number of other important powers in relation to DNFBPs, including powers of enforcement. This includes a power to obtain information and to conduct investigations into possible breaches of the Regulatory Law. The DFSAmay also impose fines for breaches of the Regulatory Law or the Rules. It may also suspend or withdraw the registration of a DNFBP in various circumstances.2. The DFSAtakes a risk-based approach to regulation of persons which it supervises. Generally, the DFSAwill work with DNFBPsto identify, assess, mitigate and control relevant risks where appropriate. RPP describes the DFSA'senforcement powers under the Regulatory Law and outlines its policy for using these powers.3. AML Rule 3.2.1 defines a DNFBP by setting out a list of businesses or professions which, if carried on in or from the DIFC, constitute a DNFBP.4. In determining if a person is carrying on a business or profession in the DIFCthat falls within the DNFBP definition, the DFSA will adopt a 'substance over form' approach. That is, it will consider what business or profession is in fact being carried on, and its main characteristics, and not just what business or profession the person purports, or is licensed, to carry on in the DIFC.5. The DFSA considers that "a law firm, notary firm or other independent legal business" in paragraph (1)(d) of the DNFBP definition, includes any business or profession that involves a legal service, including advice or services related to laws in the State or other jurisdictions. The DFSA does not consider it necessary for the purposes of the definition that:a. the relevant person is licensed to provide legal services in the State; orb. the individuals or employees providing the legal service are qualified or authorised to do so, whether in the State or in any other jurisdiction.6. The DFSA considers that "an accounting firm, audit firm or insolvency firm" in paragraph (1)(e) of the DNFBP definition, includes forensic accounting services that use accounting skills, principles and techniques to investigate suspected illegal activity or to analyse financial information for use in legal proceedings.7. The DFSA would also consider a tax advisory business carried on in or from the DIFCto be a DNFBP as it is likely to involve elements of both legal and accounting services i.e. advice on taxation law and the use of accounting skills to analyse financial records, and so fall within either paragraph (1)(d) or (e) of the DNFBP definition.
AML 15.1 AML 15.1 Registration and Notifications
An applicant for registration as a
DNFBPmust apply to the DFSAby completing and submitting the appropriate form in the AFNSourcebook.
(1) To be registered as a
DNFBP, an applicant must demonstrate to the DFSA's satisfaction that:(a) it is fit and proper to perform anti-money laundering functions; and(b) it has adequate resources and systems and controls, including policies and procedures, to comply with applicable anti-money laundering requirements under Federal AMLlegislation, the Regulatory Lawand these Rules.
(2) In assessing if an applicant is fit and proper under (1)(a), the
DFSAmay, without limiting the matters it may take into account under that paragraph, consider the applicant, its senior management, its beneficial owners, other entities in its Groupand any other person with whom it has a relationship.
DFSAwill in assessing if an applicant is fit and proper, consider the cumulative effect of matters that, if taken individually, may be regarded as insufficient to give reasonable cause to doubt the fitness and propriety of the applicant.
Annual Information Return
DNFBPmust complete the annual information return in AFNfor each calendar year and submit the return to the DFSAby 31 January of the following year.
Notification of changes
DNFBPmust promptly notify the DFSAof any change in its:(a) name;(b) legal status;(c) address;(d) MLRO; or(e) senior management; or.(f) beneficial ownership.
AML 15.2 AML 15.2 Request to withdraw registration
AML 15.2.1 AML 15.2.1
DNFBPmust notify the DFSAin writing 14 days in advance of it ceasing to carry on its DNFBPbusiness activities in or from the DIFC.
(2) The notice must include a request to cancel its registration, an explanation of the reason for it ceasing business, and attached copies of any relevant documents.
AML 15.2.1 Guidance1. A
DNFBPmay request the withdrawal of its registration because, for example, it no longer meets the definition of a DNFBP, becomes insolvent or enters into administration, or proposes to leave the DIFC.2. In addition to being able to withdraw registration at a DNFBP's request, the DFSAmay suspend or withdraw the registration of a DNFBPon its own initiative in various circumstances (see Article 71F of the Regulatory Law).
AML 15.2.2 [Deleted][Deleted] DFSA RM223/2018 (Made 18th April 2018). [VER14/07-18]
AML 15.2.3 [Deleted][Deleted] DFSA RM223/2018 (Made 18th April 2018). [VER14/07-18]
AML 15.2.4 [Deleted][Deleted] DFSA RM132/2014 (Made 21st August 2014). [VER10/06-14]
AML 15.2.5 [Deleted][Deleted] DFSA RM132/2014 (Made 21st August 2014). [VER10/06-14]
AML 15.3 AML 15.3 Disclosure of regulatory status
DNFBPmust not:(a) misrepresent its regulatory status with respect to the DFSAexpressly or by implication; or(b) use or reproduce the DFSAlogo without express written permission from the DFSAand in accordance with any conditions for use.
AML 15.4 AML 15.4 Transitional
AML 15.4.1 AML 15.4.1
Ruleapplies to a Personwho, immediately before the commencement date, was registered as a DNFBP, other than a Personwho was registered as a DNFBPby reason only of being a dealer in any saleable item of a price equal to or greater than $15,000. (2) The Personis on the commencement date taken to continue to be registered by the DFSAas a DNFBP. (3) The Personmust, by no later than the end of the transitional period, certify in writing to the DFSA:(a) that it continues to carry on its DNFBPbusiness or profession in or from the DIFC;(b) the names of the individuals who comprise its senior management;(c) details of its beneficial owners;(d) the name of the individual it has appointed as MLRO; and(e) that it has in place adequate resources and systems and controls to comply with applicable anti-money laundering requirements under the Law, these Rulesand Federal AML legislation.
DFSAmay require the certification in (3) to be in such form and verified in such manner as it thinks fit.
(5) In this
Rule:(a) "commencement date" means the day on which the Regulatory Law Amendment Law 2018 comes into force; and(b) "transitional period" means the period starting on the commencement date and ending three months after that date.
AML 15.4.1 Guidance
DNFBPfails to provide the duly completed certification to the DFSAby the end of the transitional period, it will contravene these Rules. The DFSAmay because of that failure take steps to suspend or withdraw the DNFBP's registration.
AML 16 AML 16 Transitional Rules
AML 16.1 AML 16.1 Application
This chapter applies to every person to whom a provision of the Previous Regime applied.
For the purposes of this chapter:(a) "
Ancillary Service Provider" has the meaning that it had under the Previous Regime;(b) "Commencement Date" means 14 July 2013;(c) "Current Regime" means the Rules in force on the Commencement Date;(d) " DNFBP" has the meaning that it had in DNF chapter 2 under the Previous Regime; and(e) "Previous Regime" means the Rules that were in force immediately prior to the Commencement Date.
AML 16.2 AML 16.2 General
Relevant Personmust continue to maintain any records required to be maintained under the Previous Regime until such time as the requirement to hold such record would have expired had the Previous Regime still been in force.
AML 16.3 AML 16.3 Specific relief — Ancillary Service Provider and DNFBPs
A person who, immediately prior to the Commencement Date, was an
Ancillary Service Provideror was registered as a DNFBPis deemed, on the Commencement Date, to be registered as a DNFBPfor the purposes of the Current Regime.